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Review of B cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

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Review of B cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/nclex-rn/rn-immune-system/rn-the-immune-system/v/clonal-selection?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=Nclex-rn Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/nclex-rn/rn-immune-system/rn-the-immune-system/v/cytotoxic-t-cells?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=Nclex-rn NCLEX-RN on Khan Academy: A collection of questions from content covered on the NCLEX-RN. These questions are available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s NCLEX-RN channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDx5cTeADCvKWgF9x_Qjz3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
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Text Comments (312)
yannick kenfack (1 month ago)
what makes the Dendritic Cell a best antigen presenting cell?
Hannah (2 months ago)
Hold up, isn't it also the case that MHC expression is DECREASED on infected/cancerous cell membranes? It's not just that they present some molecule that targets them for destruction. Or is that where NK cells come in?
S K (2 months ago)
I forgot why I don't like KA - very booooring.
cjlifestories (2 months ago)
This dude has a really nice voice, he should make youtube videos.
monami khan (4 months ago)
Thank you..thank you..thank you SOOO MUCH!!I'm a med-student in my 4rth year..I read somewhere in pathology that B cells produce antibodies..so when my microbiology teacher asked which cells produce antibodies and I replied B cells he just disagreed soooo strongly and said plasma cells is the answer..which I also knew but why not B cells which I read in pathology?!..I didn't get where I was wrong..but your vedio explained that effector B cells and plasma cells are same..That answers all my questions..Thank you so much to you and to your wife for mentioning that out😊..It was bugging me like hell😪
Frauline Camhol (5 months ago)
Which between B or T Cells is activated by antigen only when it is associated with another host cell?
Parvathy Mohan (5 months ago)
This helped me a lot! Thank you so much...expecting much more from you...! All the best👍🏻
Em Bee (7 months ago)
Why can’t my textbook just spell it out like this? When it is explained like this, it seems so simple
Ahmad Al_shanqeety (8 months ago)
ماشاء الله عليك رسام 👌
dalilugubre (8 months ago)
THANK YOU!!!!, I was having such a hard time understanding this, but after watching your videos I have the "WOOOW" moment. I feel so much better to face my final for micro !!!
Abominatrix650 (9 months ago)
A mental hook to try and help you remember the CD proteins: CD4 - "It's here 4 you" - Helper T Cell CD8 - "CD HATE", It HATES the infected cells and tries to kill them - Cytotoxic T Cell
bdimp (4 months ago)
proliferation of B-cells to be specific
bdimp (4 months ago)
cd8 cytotoxic t cells are called T-killer cells; another CD8 are the T-supressors(they suppress the B-cell proliferation) and the variation T-helpers that interact with the hemopoetic stem cells and control differentiation and proliferation are called T-amplificators
Don't be stupid (6 months ago)
Abominatrix650 very nice
errordude16 (7 months ago)
You Sir, are a legend!
SHASHI KANT BHASKAR (9 months ago)
Are u Google? U know every thing . U know biology u know physics u know chemistry you know geogra, social studies ... blabla bla ... i m so jealous. How do u manage to keep all the stuff in your mind .. are you a modern living encyclopedia! 😅😨
john117 mastercheif (10 months ago)
Kendra Nieuwendorp (10 months ago)
Thank you, that was really helpful! I am taking Anatomy and Physiology online and have been struggling to understand the lymphatic system because it is kind of obscure without a visual, but your videos have really helped me along.
Fionn MacCumhaill (10 months ago)
If T-cells are cytotoxic? Like macrophages....why are there monocytes? Im confused about this?
Devin Narsai (10 months ago)
Very very helpful, thank you
NOBEL DJ (10 months ago)
5:00 ish is when he starts on T cells
NOBEL DJ (10 months ago)
made over 8 years ago and helped over 800,000 people pass quizes and exams for biology thank you
Tanya Boghossian (10 months ago)
So glad to have found this right before my exam, been stuck for days!
David (10 months ago)
Great vid
Amira Marwan (10 months ago)
You saved me in my immunology classes..thanx
lokesh koomar s tyagee (10 months ago)
So does it mean than if all the cells have mhc 1 complex protein and most of them are effected with hiv virus that cytotoxic cells will kill all of them @Khan Academy
Payton Holderman (9 months ago)
HIV is a retrovirus that creates an autoimmune (fighting oneself) response that inactivates T helper cells, therefore the immune system is unable to tag foreign invaders and "sound the alarm" through the process explained in the video. Most individuals with HIV don't acquire AIDS and pass because of the HIV itself, its from some other opportunistic infection that was made possible due to the lack of CD4 (helper T) cells. Great question! -D.C. student
Coree Brecker (10 months ago)
I had B cell lymphoblastic leukemia 8 years ago I'm still alive its gone but can you do a video on how B cell lymphoblastic leukemia
pop sot (11 months ago)
Ian Whiteside (11 months ago)
khan academy rules!
Adeline Ong (11 months ago)
If I'm not mistaken, you say "plasma cells" as the cells that produce antibodies as they are the activated form of B cells. You're technically not wrong if you say B cells but they have to undergo cell activation to produce antibodies and thus, in that activated state, they're known as plasma cells.
Haider M (1 year ago)
Hi 🖐 are you have free course? !
C Picchione (1 year ago)
His side girl is a hematologist tho
Preston Huggies (1 year ago)
absolute GOAT
baldy hardnut (1 year ago)
thank you ime glad i could help
Omar Mohammad Ibrahim (1 year ago)
we guys learn from this better than university cause we are here by choise and in uni we are kind of bound to. most you who are watching this have an exam tomorrow, you are giving your full attention here, but on the class day, well, i think you know how attentive you were on class day. Dont just blame the teachers.... on the note, i also have an exam :p
Ahmad Ramadan (1 year ago)
u r amazing man !! thank u soooooooooooooo much for those amazing videos , ur method is awesome i like it ..May Allah bless u .
Jianlin He (1 year ago)
You should always listen to your wife.
Anmol Dhawan (1 year ago)
Very helpful, thanks a lot :)
bibo baba (1 year ago)
Who dis? Dis dog?
Wilson Auza (1 year ago)
I have a question that keeps bugging me because I cant find any answer to this. From what I understand T helper cell gets activated when its receptors recognize antigens presented by MHC II on some APCs. What's not clear to me is that when the activated T helper cell move on to activate B cells, does it require the B cells to have the same antigen presented on its surface just like the APC has presented in order for the B cell to produce antibodies against that specific antigen? If not, how would the T helper cell instruct the B cells what antibody to make? If yes, the chance for all events to happen seems to be very very small to me. Can someone please answer my questions? It would be a great help to me. Thanks
Ellie Nemetchek (11 months ago)
Correct. That is why if you want humoral immunity (antibody production) you need at least 2 antigens present in the blood: one that is read by the B cell, and the other that is read by the helper T cell, and then those B and T cells need to bump into one another. This is why immunity is somewhat of a numbers game with the number of antigens and WBC's. The body is more likely to respond faster to more antigens present in the blood, simply because it is more likely that two activated B and T helper cells bump into each other.
I also have this question..??
mahra rafeq (1 year ago)
Captain Velveeta (1 year ago)
Just curious...if the most common term used (and expected) is 'plasma cells' then why even introduce the term 'effector B cell'?
Theo Isaac (1 year ago)
i love the way you say immune system. IMMUUuuuUUne system helpful video as always. 2nd year at medical studies , you're the best really , thanks a lot!
tierra dixon (1 year ago)
MHC I consist of all cells except RBCs
P G (1 year ago)
MHC I is expressed on all nucleated cells, which a RBC is not.
Rose0fire (1 year ago)
I wish my biology class would be this good. You make it so interesting and simple!! Thank you soo much for demystifying the immune system!
ImHeypo (1 year ago)
Damn, thank you so much, I study Immunology but my teacher are going crazy and basics are forgoten
Joon Kim (1 year ago)
I want to thank your hematologist wife for clarifying the term "plasma cells." I was so confused when you kept saying "effector B cells."
lala zen (1 year ago)
you're such a good teacher Sal!
Heather Perry (1 year ago)
I used these to study for my MCAT and now I'm still referring to them to supplement my coursework for first year of med school. Great stuff!
Beautifully Rewritten (1 year ago)
Thank you for this video!! Helped me in my second nursing semester!
Bennett Austin (1 year ago)
You're a beast
Macarena Lobo (2 years ago)
question: so the T helper cell that activates the B cell when it bind to the MCH II ... does that T helper cell HAVE to be activated already? can it be a naive T helper cell that is specific for that MCH II antigen? thanks to anyone who can help me :)
Alfonso Peñarroya (2 years ago)
too simplificad
mingxing zhu (2 years ago)
Thank you very much! This is a wonderful lecture!
Preetham Reddy (2 years ago)
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izzy izzington (2 years ago)
SO GREAT!!! thanks so much! I understand so much better now!
bshar salh (2 years ago)
You are the best ........ from SYRIA انت الافضل............ من سوريا
RASTA FARAI (2 years ago)
MCH II goes with CD8 -.-
Eric Lawrence (11 months ago)
RASTA FARAI 2+2 is 4 - 1=3 quick maffs
Ahmad Ramadan (1 year ago)
Wow !! thanks man
lucigleyson nascimento (2 years ago)
I x 8 = 8 II x 4 = 8
RASTA FARAI (2 years ago)
ups my bad lol
Alex (2 years ago)
NO? Killer cells are CD8, and they respond to MCH I (at least thats what my book says)
Husam (2 years ago)
we all get confused by all the otologies too
Jackson Reynolds (2 years ago)
Precisely to your point, "otology" means the study of the anatomy, physiology, and diseases of the ear!
Lesego Mateme (2 years ago)
Thank you so much, this was extremely helpful.
Iso Isam (2 years ago)
Thank you for this explanation is clear
Jamie Lim (2 years ago)
what about interleukins
Janith Wijenayake (2 years ago)
cytotoxic T cells attacks endogenously synthesized antigens right ? Does that mean after a virus enters the cell, when it takes over the machinery of the cell, then it starts producing viral proteins..so these viral proteins are presented to Tc cells right ?
HansHL (2 years ago)
+Janith Wijenayake Yes. But more commonly it would activate the Natural Killer cell (NK) which specifically scans our cells for presentation on MHC-I, and the cell would then be killed.
Marc Lande (2 years ago)
Lol I'll never forget this because your wife put you in check, looks like you got yourself a great match, behind every great man is an great woman making sure he isn't screwing up his terminology 😂
Kathleen Britten (2 years ago)
OHHH PLASMA CELLLSS!!! it all just came together with my notes form class.
Damilola Akinbunmi (2 years ago)
God bless you so much for this.. You just saved my midterm final exam!!!
Guillem Estivill (2 years ago)
+Akinbunmi Damilola I can send you notes. I have a teacher who met Crick and one that knows many Nobel prize winners.
Damilola Akinbunmi (2 years ago)
I meant Midterm exam !! Thank you!!!
313heros (2 years ago)
if more antibodies become surfaced onto the membrane, does that then trigger more mhc 1 and mhc 2 complexes to be present outside as well?
PrecXx B. (2 years ago)
Without these videos on immunity, i could not have taught this topic
PrecXx B. (2 years ago)
Excellentt!!!.....ALL your videos are awesome!
Aster TK (3 years ago)
You are the best!!!
Stephanie Henriquez (3 years ago)
I learned more from these videos than I did from sitting in class. Thank you!!!!!
I know i already said this but you rock. You saved my life on this test. Thanks dude
Zeydhan (3 years ago)
You seem really proud of your wife :)
Riaz Ahemad (3 years ago)
People says they learn here lucidly than university, there should be a Youtube University.
Shooby Doo (1 year ago)
too right!
Ellen Ffoulkes (3 years ago)
This was so helpful! Thanks!
Amy Welty (3 years ago)
totally making a lot more sense now... learning lots from this.  PS-glad you listen to your wife and please post more on these topics.  Sal rocks.
Chiman Hassan (3 years ago)
b Mcclure (3 years ago)
Ahmed Mosad (3 years ago)
you don't know what does your wife study ?!  it's a crime man, i'm wondering about her reaction when watching the video :D  __________ remembered me of "Gone Girl" film, when the hot-police officer told him "you don't know your wife's blood type
1BrianBrown (3 years ago)
Great video!! Thanks a million Sal!
Abid Ahmed (3 years ago)
OMG YOUR WIFE IS SOO COOL!!! i learned more about her than t cells!!
Jose Hernandez (3 years ago)
You are so good!
JAZZ Sami (3 years ago)
Thank you so much I'm a medical student and this is a better explanation than in my histology book.. God bless you!
Xao Vang (3 years ago)
I learn more from these videos than my university classes….
Baylee Walker (2 months ago)
No kidding.
leonid R (2 months ago)
Education is outdated needs to be revised and optimized.
Emilio Herrera (1 year ago)
¡Im Mexican and I find this offensive lol!
Rosie 454 (2 years ago)
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Neeshant n (2 years ago)
+Xao Vang exactly....!!!
abimpy moschino (3 years ago)
Damn it, you awesome awesome man.. 
MrZamil124 (3 years ago)
Thank you for this. It really explained pretty much everything I have taken in my immunology course so far. However, I wonder why you haven't mentioned NK cells. It is a part of the innate system that has it own mechanism. I guess I'll just look it up somewhere else. 
Lèpoka Folk Metal (3 years ago)
+MrZamil124 they form part of the primary response. I believe this video was directed towards secondary inmune response. Hope it helped!
Lauren Settle (3 years ago)
+MrZamil124 I was wondering that myself!
Awtar Fifi (3 years ago)
i'm sorry?may i ask you?what is the name of the  programme you use to write on ....i'm talking about this black background and so on
baldy hardnut (1 year ago)
Its called 3rd generation Cell tech black board you can simply download it by scrolling down on the home tab of google and then looking at the banana being peeled while its ripe on a hot summers day.
vadivukarasi (4 years ago)
one small clarification. MHC 1 and MHII proteins do not connect with CD8 and CD4 proteins. They connect with CD8 and CD4 cells respectively but through the t cell receptor (TCR). 
sexijag1 (4 years ago)
What a great and informative tutorial. I am a vet school student and this is the perfect video to review for an immunology final! Thanks and keep up the great work. I love how you simplified this!
T. Tiz (4 years ago)
Great video thank you so much. I still need to watch one more time to absorb more lol. 
Mayra Rico (4 years ago)
Thank you so much sir, you are going to help me pass my pathophysiology test :D yay!
dulce paria (4 years ago)
eres excelente!!! muchas gracias por los videos y traducciones :D
charani reddy (4 years ago)
Very clear and good
Bodh A (4 years ago)
There are infact 3 types of T cells 1) Cytotoxic T cells CTL (CD8+) cells 2) T-helper cells (CD4+ Cells) and 3) T-regulatory cells also know as suppressor T cells or Treg (FOXP3+ CD25+). Treg cells are very important cells because they are required to   suppress activation self-reactivity, and prevent autoimmunity. 
Ashleigh Sayer (4 years ago)
There are also NKT, γδ T cells and memory T cells.
Amanda Duffin (4 years ago)
nice clarification, my pathology book actually just lumps together suppressor/cytotoxic T cells
MrLimo217 (4 years ago)
You have earned yourself yet another Subscriber :D
Erinola Araoye (4 years ago)
Thank You so much for making these videos. Im learning a lot so fast! God Bless you!!
Mike 649Foxx (4 years ago)
Microbiology and immunology exam tomorrow. Thank you my friend.
Shaqif Aziz (4 years ago)
Thank you so much! .. you don't know how you helps me ❤ thank you again
Josh Gilbert (4 years ago)
CD8 T-cells usually become NK'S or Natural Killer cells
Ashleigh Sayer (4 years ago)
No they don't. http://mcb.berkeley.edu/courses/mcb150/Lecture16/Lecture16%286%29.pdf
vg473 (4 years ago)
This video is very helpful thank you so much !
Rafa Pla (4 years ago)
Thatk u very much. It´s been extremlly mind opener
Karlos Powell (4 years ago)
Also, when CD4 cells bind to B cells the activated complex releases interleukin which stimulates the production of clone cells (memory cells and plasma [produces antibodies]). 
Danial J (4 years ago)
More specifically IL-4 & IL-5
ybbed019 (4 years ago)
Thank you SO much!
Colorfulcountenance (4 years ago)
You are the truth!!!!! Thank you sooo much for this. Really!
aseel Kaabi (4 years ago)
awesome  My regards from Sultant of Oman
Joy Udochi (4 years ago)
Thanks very much, u re really good.

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