Innate vs. adaptive immunity. Humoral adaptive immunity vs. cell-mediated adaptive immunity. Created by Sal Khan.
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+Jonika Weerasekare No viruses usually have single stranded rna as their genome. This kinda helps in a faster reverse transcription (y'know, synthesizing dna out of rna). So that they can multiply as fast as they can and make more copies.
So can anyone explain why is it that the purpose of immunotherapy for allergies is to direct the immune response away from humoral immunity and towards cellular mediated immunity? if the difference between humoral and cellular is just whether the cell has been infected or not?
He is not speaking at that level..in 30 mins how can he.. he is explaining basic immune response NOT virology..
But yeah, I just rechecked, he did say that only virus has dsDNA while mimicking a WBC thoughts.
He is also right because DNA should be in Nucleus not in interstitial space or serum where WBC operate. Any that are found where WBC operate must be virii or some fragment that must be removed..
+topkhani nah he's still wrong. He said leukocytes respond non-specifically to double-stranded DNA, as if double-stranded DNA is somehow foreign and indicates a virus. Pretty sure he meant dsRNA. but DNA isn't always double stranded. there are single stranded DNA viruses.
NOOOOO - he is right. DNA is always double stranded no matter where or what.
Yes, there are RNA viruses - AIDS virus is an example. It produces a special enzyme called reverse transcriptase which actually can reproduce a DNA strand from that RNA strand. Then only it can replicate from that newly made DNA..
Dear Khan Academy, I want say thank you very much for your outstanding work. I am so blessed to have this access and As being Medical student I always looked over more details.So i found a wonderful website (Khan Academy). I have one question, About MHC1. I know it interacts CD8. It is found in all nucleated cell, except RBC. My question is when we do blood transfusion, what about if we have an infected Rbc in specific. Can MHC1 respond and Can CD8 kill all the cell? sorry, I don't how much clear this question is, but i am kind of wondering....peace.
I have been using these videos for supplementary learning because my college professor does NO sort of visual teaching. It's terrible for me! So after class I come and find the video that correlates with the lecture and I think it's the only reason I might pass my final tomorrow! Thanks.
Khan [email protected] T-Lymphocyte is divided into "helper T cells, memory T-cells, suppressor T cells, and killer T cells.
(Not only T helper and Tc cells)
you would have discussed about these too.
I am sure double stranded DNA is found in some viruses i.e. Hepatitis B, herpes virus family incl. Herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, & Epstein-Barr virus, adenoviruses, papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses & poxviruses such as smallpox.
I'm convinced he has magical powers. Studying for Calculus and a Microbiology test taught by the same dude [who puts everything in (basically) lamens terms]?? Freaking amazing. Thank you so much, good sir. You have helped me and probably countless others pass their classes.
Thank you so much for taking your time to teach us in simpler terms. God bless you! You are helping a lot of students who are stuck trying to understand what we are studying. And you make it so much easier for us. So thank you thank you!
Although foreigners may now invest in A-shares, there is a monthly 20 percent limit on repatriation of funds to foreign countries.
Performance of A-shares.
Since its inception in 1990, including a major reform in 2002, the index has seen great fluctuations. Overall, however, it has grown along with the Chinese economy. The years 2015 to 2016 were a particularly difficult period, with a 52-week performance of -21.55 percent as of July 20, 2016.
As China grows from an emerging market to an advanced economy, there is substantial demand for Chinese equity. Stock exchange regulators continue efforts to make A-shares more broadly available to foreign investors and have them recognized by the global investing community.
In June 2017, the MSCI Emerging Markets Index announced a long-awaited decision it would add stocks to its index. According to CNBC, MSCI will add 222 China A Large Cap stocks to its benchmark emerging markets index gradually beginning in 2018. The MSCI website reveals the stocks it will list include the Bank of China, China Merchants Bank, Guotai Junan, Ping An Insurance, according to a document on Tsingtao Brewery, SAIC Motor, Suning Commerce and Spring Airlines.
Current Dividend Preference.
Participating Preferred Stock.
Convertible Preferred Stock.
Cumulative preferred stock includes a provision that requires the company to pay preferred shareholders all dividends, including those that were omitted in the past, before the common shareholders are able to receive their dividend payments.
Non-cumulative preferred stock does not issue any omitted or unpaid dividends. If the company chooses not to pay dividends in any given year, the shareholders of the non-cumulative preferred stock have no right or power to claim such forgone dividends at any time in the future.
Participating preferred stock provides its shareholders with the right to be paid dividends in an amount equal to the generally specified rate of preferred dividends, plus an additional dividend based on a predetermined condition. This additional dividend is typically designed to be paid out only if the amount of dividends received by common shareholders is greater than a predetermined per-share amount. If the company is liquidated, participating preferred shareholders may also have the right to be paid back the purchasing price of the stock as well as a pro-rata share of remaining proceeds received by common shareholders.
Significance to Investors.