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The Future of Space Telescopes
Webb et al. 1998, A Search for Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant
Webb et al. 2011, A Search for Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant
Martins & Pinho 2016, Stability of Fundamental Couplings: a Global Analysis
The laws of physics are the same everywhere in the universe. At least we astrophysicists hope so. After all, it’s hard to unravel the complexities of distant parts of the universe if we don’t know the basic rules. But what if this is wrong? There is a hint of evidence that the fundamental constants that govern our universe may evolve over time, and even from one location to another.
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The only 'constant' I see as capable of having a measurable change is the Hubble or cosmological constant. This measurement which is based on the misunderstood 'red-shifting' of light can be unique to ones' reference point. The one thing correct here is the need for a more complete cosmological model. Let me know when you need it.
Just thinking outside the box, but rather than αlpha being "fine tuned" to produce the observable universe, could it be that the large scale interactions between electrons and positrons inform values of αlpha across spacetime?
Put another way, could values of αlpha be a proxy for relative ratios of matter to antimatter?
I don't think we have any true laws of physics. What we have are very powerful mathematical models which predict the behavior of the universe to some very high degree of accuracy. The constants are simply necessary to make our models work.
What is black hole ?
The black hole is a factor that helps spoil your energy cycle. The star and the black hole make the energy cycle of the universe. The black hole is creating a huge contraction. If there is a scientific collapse of a black hole in modern science, then you will never get into a state of big bang. That's the reason why modern science says. It can be thought of as such on the basis of it. Because of high gravity, neither light nor anything else can get out. Saying that nothing else can be faster than light. If so, how can a big bang be a modern science? Big bang is on the big stage. Then how will that happen? How does light and heat survive the gravity of modern science? Although the expanding universe is likely to be a major controversy, its evidence is unavailable. There is a mathematical parallel to the contradictory theories that are not synchronized in modern science. My theory states that the universe was expanding by the expansion of the magnetic field bubbles. Now the magnetic field is slowly shrinking. Because the cosmic energy level of the universe is very low. In the era of universe, the sky was seen with a luminous splendor. So it is contradictory to modern science.
In my theory, black is caused by starvation. It will re-star in any strong black hole gravity. That is, even light and heat survive even in the high level of the black holes higher gravity. That is the big bang.The self-spinning fields are the obvious thing. The clear hole is the white hole, as opposed to the black hole. That's the point. There is no connection between modern science and my theory. The example for the White Hole is a star.
The explosion could be classified into three parts.
1.Exploding the explosion was a star explosion, 2.Galaxy explosions
The first thing in the Big Bang is not the obvious thing. There is a difference.The obvious things were appearing only after the big bang. The obvious matter is a sensible matter. The Big Black hole was a big controversy before the Big Bang. And then the center of the universe remained. The Big Bang of the Black House is the removal of black hole. This change is taking place over billions of years. In the galaxy explosion, the galaxy is a stellar mass cluster, like the star bubbles similar to the bubbles.
When a star is black hole, the structural structure of the structure decreases. The star collapses as part of the 10th. Then the star's evolutionary black hole is completely lost by the magnetic force. This means that the star has lost its magnetic bubble effect on the galaxy. Then the weight of a star turned into a black hole is drawn to the galactic center. At the end of the galaxy, all black holes that evolved from the star to the center of galaxies are filled to the center of galaxies. Then it turns to big black hole. And those black holes combines together and forms in to huge black hole. Here the gravity increases naturally. Then there will be density. Then the black hole is not forms by the gravity . The black hole is made with time and movements, making a white hole cycle.
What is the role of gravity in star and black hole? A star's energy stabilization is achieved through gravity. The star requires gravity to shine from 43.2 billion years. Life on the Earth stays on a particular pressure. It is necessary to increase pressure to increase the life cycle. A bomb explodes because the atomic bombs and the hydrogen bomb do not have enough pressure. Hiroshima and Nagasaki would still have been fire by the sun. The pure black holes are the star and the black holes. A star gravity is enough to achieve the stability of the black hole. The star-size black hole does not produce any visible radiation in any way. So no one can see them. Larger black holes absorb living bodies, some of them are radiation. Some of the waves fall into the big black hole objects. So through a special telescope it is known. Black hole is a state of magnetic wings passed away. Then the black hole goes down to gravity center. So the black hole develops. When it reaches its climax the gravity will rise. In that situation, the black hole is bursting with illuminated galaxies. If the expansion in the universe is expanded, it can not be said. It's a universal merger. There was no bright light at that time. The largest amount of time for the merger of the cosmos.
When I was studying in fifth grade, My mom tried to make a vinegar from toddy. A few days later I look into the bottle to see what was happening inside the bottle. The mutt was formed in the bottom, from which small small bubbles rising above the top. Another thing I noticed was that. When the thin mutt goes into the bubble upward it goes over and the bubble bursts back to the bottom of the mutt.It repeatedly happening . Similarly, this happens in the galaxy and the vast universe. The bubble's magnetic field acts like a bubble. This is the development of the cosmos. The energy star also has a strong magnetic field. Then the galaxies will grow above the galaxy as the bubbles from the center of the galaxy grow up. When the stars become black holes, the magnetic field is lost. Then it grows in the galaxy area. The central part of the fallen galaxy becomes a big black hole, with the tiny little black holes in the center of the galaxy.
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Universe structure. Class Vision.
The center of the universe
Molecular size is too small at the center of the universe. And the size of the cosmos is less, so there is little size. The size of the star there is only the size of the moon, but the mass of the sun is similar to that. The specificity is that the speed of light changes according to the molecular size. That means that the speed of light at the center of the universe will be reduced to 3,000 km per second. But when the light speed measures according to the molecular size, the relative balance will remain there too. The giant stars and the stars stand in the center of the universe. The superment mass of the center of the universe is called Limura. Murali is the name of the musical instrument known as Murali. Brahmam was born in the center of the universe. So the name of the name Limbura is appropriate. There are galaxies.
Our galaxy is located in a solid part of the solid field. The galaxy is surrounded by the center of the universe. There are also many sized galaxies. The size and size of the brother galaxies are similar. Because weight is almost the same at the Earth's surface. Similarly, there are brothers and sisters in a gravity level. Neighboring galaxies appear to be slightly lower and lower in the gravity level. Molecular density and density are in the opposite proportion. Our Galaxy Medium is the size of the molecular size. Our galaxy is still in a position not within the premises of the galaxy. That's why galaxies stand around us. The universe happens when the cosmic collapse is complete. This is called a great contraction. The universe will be rebuilt in a great deal. The universe and the galaxies were developed like the bubbles.
The upper part of the cosmic solid region.
The precision of the solid constituency is very heavy and the size of a large number of galaxies and galaxies is present. Here are the molecular size of the materials. Yet according to the size
Relative light speed is achieved. The speed of light is not infinite because the molecular size is limited.
The sky, the fire, the air, the water and the earth are the state of matter. panchabootham they are not stable. What is the reason When the earth melt, the water will be cooled and the gas will not be stable. I can not see another condition from the Panch Mahmood situation. The panchabootham has their hybrids.
The sky is the ether. The sky looks like a five field. It is Elanic sky, Pronic sky, Neunic sky, Motivator sky, solid sky. The four sky is the medium of energy. Strong sky is not the medium of energy
There are five types of tags: Eon Agni, Eon is a chemical fire. Electron fire, proton fire, neutron fire, excite fire or motivator fire. Eon has a sub fire. The electron has no sub fire. The proton has the tools. There are neutrons equipment. Motivator fire does not know whether it has a sub fire. The Fire is their movements in the sky.
From this point of view, the cosmic constellation of the cosmos is found in the sphere. Elanic sky is spread through the solid field. So Elanic sky helps to light the star. The solid constituency is a constellation full of stars and galaxies. Reason? The handmade handicrafts are located here. So it is called solid field. The Elanic sky is found out in solid form outside the constituency. Pure Elanic is very low temperature in the sky. Pronic, Neunic, Motivator, and the sky goes down very low. In the solid field, the Elanic sky will be unclean with galaxy winds and star winds. It has been dissolved into the air and in transparent spaces. Elanic places the medium of light in its sub-sky.
Light does not travel in the Pronic sky. Gama is full of cosmic rays. This sky is filled up to the center of the universe. The pure Pronic outside the solid constituency is dense dark in the sky. Pronic field is a density lower than Elanic. Due to the extremely low loader, harder spots will be dissolved in a moment. Pronic has a little bit of energy in the sky. That is why Gama Cosmic has some transparency.
Neunic sky. The old name is Neutric Sky.
Neunica is the most energy solar energy in the sky. 97% of the Neunic sky appears in the form of neutral wavelengths. This sky is well integrated into the solid field. Therefore, the waves are not resistant or repulsive. The sky is found only in the Pronic field. Many gamma and cosmic energy forms become part of the neutral energy at the division level of the Pronic constituency and the Neunic constituency. Fire does not need fire to change its energy. The power exchange is on the one-way track. But it does not happen again. Neutral energy in the Neunic field does not make gamma and cosmic energy. Due to the very low ether pressure here, solid materials merge into the sky with the explosion.
Motivator sky (The supreme sky).
The supreme sky is a dissolved sky up to the center center. The cosmos is less than the size of the sky. Motivator has very low levels of motivator waves in the sky. Motivator radius is 100 times faster than light. The Motivator Wave is the wave causing the Big Bang. This wave is created by the Motivator fire in the solid field. This effect is more evident during the Big Bang. The Motivator Fire, as a result, is subject to the universe of the universe and thus merging with the elements into the sky. In the long run, the universe has cooled up and the universe appears to exist.
Dead sky is the lightest sky in the universe. That is why on the upper surface of the universe. There is no movement in this. The powers of the universe can not move it. Therefore, the wave movement is not possible. Dead sky is a celestial sky. Solid Heaven gives us the strength of things. Basal substances are formed in the base of the air. If you reach this sky, no one can move. So the energy of the universe will not go out inside or out. If the universe is alone, the crystal is not the same shape as the sphere. But the parallel universe, which is similar to the universe, can not be achieved. When the parallel universe of spherical form is presented, clean void gaps make a philosophical contradiction. When the crystal universe was introduced it was excluded. The global universe is from Motivator Sky. Therefore, it is only the creepy sky that has a curved shape. This is when the soap bubbles stay together and the crystal form. And parallel cosmos are like crystal bricks. The parallel universe creates another large universe. The micro parallel cosmos can also be found in the microscopic condition of the material. It produces microscopic universes.
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i'm thinking that the particles held together by an electromagnetic field may have an effect on how powerful the field is, that is not a constant. the energy emitted from an electromagnetic field may be altered by the amount of energy altered while creating the field. ?? Just saying.
Maybe it just comes down to having the wrong figures for the equations. Which, in my opinion is TIME. I mean, what does time really have to do with the universe other than for us to measure change with it? It seems to me that time should be replaced with location or mass escalation and mass deescalation. The other thing is that everything is in motion. The sun spins, the planets rotate and orbit, Saturn’s rings rotate, huge storms on the gas giants rotate, the solar system is rotating around the galaxy, and the galaxy has matter rotating at its center. Hell, for all we know the universe mat be rotating. So the only constant I see is motion. Even if everything is absolutely correct about what scientists theorize about the universe, it would seem to me that just by the fact of universal expansion that there would be a flux in properties of the universe due to being devoid from other material because of expansion separation.
You want to know why no new evidence in Physics is showing up? Because researchers have accepted certain things as “constants” no matter the environment, no matter the interacting forces, no matter what. Our constants are only constants from our perspective. For instance, researchers consistently subscribe to the fact that if we can’t see it or touch it, it absolutely CANNOT be there. In the same breath, they’ll speak in support of String Theory, which itself speaks of 6 plains of existence we cannot perceive (yet). Im not including M-theory or Time because they aren’t technically dimensions, at least not via our perception. Physics research will never move past this point until researchers accept the fact that, perhaps, regions of the universe and elements of the big bang (or the “time” before the big bang) do NOT subscribe to our perception of these immovable “constants”. This disastrous stubbornness in the field of physics is being forcibly removed as we speak. The studies into polling the CMB, and thus, the “axis of evil”, PROVE that more is at play that disposes of this concept of our universe being in “perfect entropy” that scientists defend whole-heartedly. Just poll the CMD into 16ths and you will IMMEDIATELY see what I’m talking about. Poll it into 8ths and you’ll see that the known universe is flawlessly symmetrical and proportional to our PLANET. Going further than that, we are quite literally, per the CMB, the center of the universe. All I’m saying is that researchers are clinging to age-old constants that perhaps need to be looked beyond. Just LOOK AROUND YOU. Move your hand in front of your face, and you’ll see the emergence of another dimension. It is happening very slowly, but things have changed since 20-30 years ago. I can’t explain what, and im not talking about this whole “back in mah day the world was so much calmer” bullshit. Im talking about the fundamentals of physics around us. Look around you, and then think back to 20-30 years ago. Look at objects moving through space and time. Something has changed, and I believe its humans evolving to a point where another dimension is becoming visible to us. This might sound crazy (in fact i know it sounds crazy) but my point is that we need to start thinking outside of the box, as cliche as that is.
If the Fine Structure Constant turns out to not be constant, then the new proposed SI base unit definitions will be short lived. Though I’m not certain if there will be a better possible way at that point.
3:05 “In fact it may be impossible to interpret changes in any physical constant that has units.”
Why? If the speed of light, for example, were defined in units _not_ dependant on its value, then what’s the problem?
The underlying mathematics stays the same, though ?
Light speed, for instance, can always be expressed as "1 distance unit per 1 time unit", regardless of its earthly distance travelled per unit of earthly time indexed ?
Read Brainwave by Poul Anderson, written in the 1950s.. When the earth moves into a new region of space with different physical rules, ordinary people get smarter, smart people become geniuses and geniuses become too smart for this planet so they build interstellar spaceships and leave. Even dogs learn to talk.
That could be true but The Universe is a big place. I believe The Universe is bigger than any numbered that could be put into BEAF, or at least before multi dimensional arrays even with extended topologies added.
How about a extra-gravitic scope that counts E = mc2 only as alt time, a kind of time space in which a DePalma torsioned universe alt cycles time as an actual mind does: it measures m as alt t, which allows for a kind of counter near any black hole, a mere s curve across all the space, hence easily read with an extra gravitic fuzz. It's like doing a converged waves oscillation of an entire space (scalar), i.e. as any plasma (think dark e in the s curve) can communicate from one side to the other, precisely.
Ok I see where the miscalculation in the linear equations. The last linear equation that defines the exchange of shared elements between planetary translinear wave lengths is wrong. The equation defines that the amount of atomic mass of prodominent elements is the forerunner of events that define the details of translinear wave lengths but that's wrong it's the amount of molecular mass within the object that defines the exchange of particles between binary objects that's why the quantum calculations are having a variable remainder. Quantum physics is not a mathematical science that has variables if it then it's wrong as is this linear law, no wonder the quantum calculations keep coming out slightly off
Maybe what we think are constants are so slowly changing that we consider them constants. But what if these constants were changing really quickly back when we thought the big bang happened.. maybe they explain another reality where a big bang is impossible? Like some sort of asymptotical changing of these constants whereas we are far away of the asymptote?
What are the chances that all fundamental constants remain 100% the same throughout this universe's sustenance?
BUT maybe there existed/exists/will exist a parallel universe where this vanishingly small probability plays out. Perhaps in that universe the improbability is not vanishing small....maybe that's why it plays out.
What if gravity in this universe becomes weaker as this universe ages?
Yep. And all this mucking about with equations, crazy numbers, and incomprehensible times and distances doesn't even tease the question of how all of these "physical Laws" and "Universal Constants" interface with Human Consciousness... The true underlying phenomena.
Also, There seems to be something fishy going on with gravity.
Big G also changes slightly. Constants=created by scientist to superimpose a human logistical permanence on a universe that is less than 5% observes. If I look at pictures of 147 big toe nails, I can now determine the percentage of neanderthal genetics and predict it's influence on sneezes. The earth is the center of the universe, and exhibits singularity, ring singularity, and sphere singularity behaviors and observations in this reference point does not obey logical or classical systems requiring the constants of the universe.
Isn't this further proof that nothing in the whole universe stays constant. Everything is ever changing on a long enough time scale. However, ancient philosophies have known this since 1000s of years ago. As per them everything changes. Nothing is constant except the Consciousness.
I am a creationists, and the general theory of relativity has a foundational assumption that the laws of physics are the same throughout the whole universe. Would Einstine turn in his gave at the idea of shifting constants?
13:35 what do you mean only 1 direction? If you have the telescope orbit the sun at the right distance you have a 360 degree view of the entire observable universe. If you have multiple telescopes you could have them form a network and share data in a ring. If there's enough of them the closest ones could share the collected data with Earth almost constantly
Skipping to the end: We don't know anything for sure, we need to do more work.
"We astrophysicists" So you are one? I would like to see the video you show the document. But hey, i'm just not a trusting person.
We measure realitely in this 1=Blah Blah Blah. Yet when we see our measurement had changed (aka that our perceived measurement is wrong) we don't admit what we know is wrong, we just assu
me base off the limited information we are given, it needs to be changed and not the way we measure it.
So, understanding that, when we see that one inch becomes 1 foot, we wont call it 12 inches, we will call it one foot. Ignoring the fact that we change mesue its rate of change to ensure the status status quo remains nominal.
What strikes me as a data scientist is how 2-3sigmas is already a great confidence level. Even if it may not be enough to make this official knowledge, don't such results indicate that the matter should be researched way more (since the conclusions are paradigm shitfing)?
small thougt. maximum entropie is proportional to the area of the systems surface. that means in an expanding universe there can be less and less entropy/information per unit volume. does that not lead to a minimum volume that increases with time and constants of nature that must be changing?
The constants do change from galaxy to galaxy and in relation to distance of some solar system to the center of its galaxy, as a galaxies gravitational black hole, at the center of a galaxy, influences all matter around it which is also falling into it over time. So then you must ask yourself if a galaxy is caught in a massive black hole at its center, is the universe really expanding, or is just the matter of that galaxy which is being pulled into that black hole shrinking.
I know this may seem like an amateur question but I'm also an amateur at physics and astronomy... I understand that light passing through a medium or gas or dust or something of that nature causes certain light bands... resulting in us being able to tell which elements are present... but what I don't understand is exactly how, so what I mean is what determines how the photons are being absorbed by these certain elements?
Materials currently being developing by engineers that are able to manipulate light are known as metamaterials. I believe the field of metamaterials will become invaluable in macro and microscopy as it matures and we learn better ways of manipulating light with nano structures.
The universe is clearly an evolving complex system so the idea of constants makes no sense. Many physicists don't like this idea so it's not surprising they would revise any study that suggested otherwise.
I doubt the constants are changing. Because if they were, it would be possible to make perpetual motion machines, and all sorts of things would come apart at the seams if that happened, namely gauss's law applied to gravity would no longer be correct, and spacetime literally would not fit together, general relativity would create constraints on the shape of spacetime that would make it resemble the impossible triangle or an mc escher painting.
Although foreigners may now invest in A-shares, there is a monthly 20 percent limit on repatriation of funds to foreign countries.
Performance of A-shares.
Since its inception in 1990, including a major reform in 2002, the index has seen great fluctuations. Overall, however, it has grown along with the Chinese economy. The years 2015 to 2016 were a particularly difficult period, with a 52-week performance of -21.55 percent as of July 20, 2016.
As China grows from an emerging market to an advanced economy, there is substantial demand for Chinese equity. Stock exchange regulators continue efforts to make A-shares more broadly available to foreign investors and have them recognized by the global investing community.
In June 2017, the MSCI Emerging Markets Index announced a long-awaited decision it would add stocks to its index. According to CNBC, MSCI will add 222 China A Large Cap stocks to its benchmark emerging markets index gradually beginning in 2018. The MSCI website reveals the stocks it will list include the Bank of China, China Merchants Bank, Guotai Junan, Ping An Insurance, according to a document on Tsingtao Brewery, SAIC Motor, Suning Commerce and Spring Airlines.
Current Dividend Preference.
Participating Preferred Stock.
Convertible Preferred Stock.
Cumulative preferred stock includes a provision that requires the company to pay preferred shareholders all dividends, including those that were omitted in the past, before the common shareholders are able to receive their dividend payments.
Non-cumulative preferred stock does not issue any omitted or unpaid dividends. If the company chooses not to pay dividends in any given year, the shareholders of the non-cumulative preferred stock have no right or power to claim such forgone dividends at any time in the future.
Participating preferred stock provides its shareholders with the right to be paid dividends in an amount equal to the generally specified rate of preferred dividends, plus an additional dividend based on a predetermined condition. This additional dividend is typically designed to be paid out only if the amount of dividends received by common shareholders is greater than a predetermined per-share amount. If the company is liquidated, participating preferred shareholders may also have the right to be paid back the purchasing price of the stock as well as a pro-rata share of remaining proceeds received by common shareholders.
Significance to Investors.