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Doodle Science teaches you high school physics in a less boring way in almost no time!
Geothermal energy uses hot water and steam from deep underground to drive turbines. Radioactive decay of substances like uranium heats up rocks, which may heat water that rises as steam. In some places there may be hot rocks but no water. In this situation, deep wells can be drilled down to the hot rocks and cold water pumped down. The water runs through the rocks where it's heated up and returns to the surface as hot water and steam, where its energy can be used to drive turbines and electricity generators. The advantages are that there are no pollutant gases produced. However, most parts of the world do not have suitable areas where geothermal energy can be exploited.
Finally, you can use solar cells to generate electricity. They convert light energy directly into electrical energy. The advantages are that they can be used in remote areas because they create electricity directly. However, solar cells are expensive and inefficient, so the cost of their electricity is high. But the cost is going down year by year and eventually, everyone will want it.
Sorry for the misunderstanding, I was explaining the method for harnessing the geothermal energy by pumping water down which gets heated and then returns as steam. Not fracking to obtain natural gas etc. :)
Although foreigners may now invest in A-shares, there is a monthly 20 percent limit on repatriation of funds to foreign countries.
Performance of A-shares.
Since its inception in 1990, including a major reform in 2002, the index has seen great fluctuations. Overall, however, it has grown along with the Chinese economy. The years 2015 to 2016 were a particularly difficult period, with a 52-week performance of -21.55 percent as of July 20, 2016.
As China grows from an emerging market to an advanced economy, there is substantial demand for Chinese equity. Stock exchange regulators continue efforts to make A-shares more broadly available to foreign investors and have them recognized by the global investing community.
In June 2017, the MSCI Emerging Markets Index announced a long-awaited decision it would add stocks to its index. According to CNBC, MSCI will add 222 China A Large Cap stocks to its benchmark emerging markets index gradually beginning in 2018. The MSCI website reveals the stocks it will list include the Bank of China, China Merchants Bank, Guotai Junan, Ping An Insurance, according to a document on Tsingtao Brewery, SAIC Motor, Suning Commerce and Spring Airlines.
Current Dividend Preference.
Participating Preferred Stock.
Convertible Preferred Stock.
Cumulative preferred stock includes a provision that requires the company to pay preferred shareholders all dividends, including those that were omitted in the past, before the common shareholders are able to receive their dividend payments.
Non-cumulative preferred stock does not issue any omitted or unpaid dividends. If the company chooses not to pay dividends in any given year, the shareholders of the non-cumulative preferred stock have no right or power to claim such forgone dividends at any time in the future.
Participating preferred stock provides its shareholders with the right to be paid dividends in an amount equal to the generally specified rate of preferred dividends, plus an additional dividend based on a predetermined condition. This additional dividend is typically designed to be paid out only if the amount of dividends received by common shareholders is greater than a predetermined per-share amount. If the company is liquidated, participating preferred shareholders may also have the right to be paid back the purchasing price of the stock as well as a pro-rata share of remaining proceeds received by common shareholders.
Significance to Investors.