The Tokyo Stock Exchange (東京証券取引所 Tōkyō Shōken Torihikijo), which is called Tōshō (東証) or TSE for short, is a stock exchange located in Tokyo, Japan. It is the second largest stock exchange in the world by aggregate market capitalization of its listed companies. It had 2,292 listed companies with a combined market capitalization of US$4.5 trillion as of November 2013.
In July 2012 a planned merger with the Osaka Securities Exchange was approved by the Japan Fair Trade Commission. The resulting entity, the Japan Exchange Group (JPX) (日本取引所グループ Nihon Torihikijo Gurūpu), was launched on January 1, 2013.
The TSE is incorporated as a kabushiki gaisha with nine directors, four auditors and eight executive officers. Its headquarters are located at 2-1 Nihonbashi-kabutocho (ja:日本橋兜町), Chūō, Tokyo, or "Kabutocho", which is the largest financial district in Japan. Its operating hours are from 8:00 to 11:30 a.m., and from 12:30 to 5:00 p.m. From April 24, 2006, the afternoon trading session started at its usual time of 12:30 p.m..
Stocks listed on the TSE are separated into the First Section for large companies, the Second Section for mid-sized companies, and the Mothers (Market of the high-growth and emerging stocks) (ja:マザーズ?) section for high-growth startup companies. As of October 31, 2010, there are 1,675 First Section companies, 437 Second Section companies and 182 Mothers companies.
The main indices tracking the TSE are the Nikkei 225 index of companies selected by the Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Japan's largest business newspaper), the TOPIX index based on the share prices of First Section companies, and the J30 index of large industrial companies maintained by Japan's major broadsheet newspapers.
Ninety-four domestic and 10 foreign securities companies participate in TSE trading. See: Members of the Tokyo Stock Exchange
Other TSE-related institutions include:
The exchange's press club, called the Kabuto Club (ja:兜倶楽部 Kabuto kurabu?), which meets on the third floor of the TSE building. Most Kabuto Club members are affiliated with the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Kyodo News, Jiji Press, or business television broadcasters such as Bloomberg LP and CNBC. The Kabuto Club is generally busiest during April and May, when public companies release their annual accounts.
On 15 June 2007, the TSE paid $303 million to acquire a 4.99% stake in Singapore Exchange Ltd.
The Tokyo Stock Exchange was established on May 15, 1878, as the Tokyo Kabushiki Torihikijo (東京株式取引所) under the direction of then-Finance Minister Okuma Shigenobu and capitalist advocate Shibusawa Eiichi. Trading began on June 1, 1878.
In 1943, the exchange was combined with ten other stock exchanges in major Japanese cities to form a single Japanese Stock Exchange (ja:日本証券取引所 Nippon Shōken Torihikisho). The combined exchange was shut down and reorganized shortly after the bombing of Nagasaki.