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Information Theory and Coding - Definitions, Uncertainty, Properties of Information with Proofs
 
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Information Theory and Coding Introduction – Definitions, Uncertainty, Measure/Properties of Information with Proofs ITC Lectures in Hindi for B.Tech, MCA, M.Tech and other Engineering Students
Information Basics, Definition, Uncertainty & Properties in Digital Communication
 
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In this video, i have explained Information Basics, Definition, Uncertainty & Properties by following outlines: 0. Information 1. Basics of Information 2. Definition of Information 3. Uncertainty of Information 4. Property of Information For free materials of different engineering subjects use my android application named Engineering Funda with following link: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.viaviapp.ENG_Funda Above Android application of Engineering Funda provides following services: 1. Free Materials (GATE exam, Class Notes, Interview questions) 2. Technical Forum 3. Technical discussion 4. Inquiry For more details and inquiry on above topic visit website of Engineering Funda with given link: http://www.engineeringfunda.co.in Engineering Funda channel is all about Engineering and Technology. Here this video is a part of Digital communication. #Engineering Funda, #Communication Engineering, #Digital Communication, #Information Theory, #Error Coding, #Examples, #Information, #Basics of Information, #Definition of Information, #Uncertainty of Information, #Property of Information
Views: 446 Engineering Funda
Introduction to Signal Processing
 
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http://AllSignalProcessing.com for free e-book on frequency relationships and more great signal processing content, including concept/screenshot files, quizzes, MATLAB and data files. Introductory overview of the field of signal processing: signals, signal processing and applications, philosophy of signal processing, and language of signal processing
Views: 82069 Barry Van Veen
Electromagnetic Spectrum: Radio Waves
 
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http://www.facebook.com/ScienceReason ... [email protected]: EMS Electromagnetic Spectrum (Episode 2) - Radio Waves The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. The "electromagnetic spectrum" of an object is the characteristic distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed by that particular object. --- Please SUBSCRIBE to Science & Reason: • http://www.youtube.com/Best0fScience • http://www.youtube.com/ScienceTV • http://www.youtube.com/FFreeThinker --- MEASURING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is just a name that scientists give a bunch of types of radiation when they want to talk about them as a group. Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it goes - visible light that comes from a lamp in your house and radio waves that come from a radio station are two types of electromagnetic radiation. Other examples of EM radiation are microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays. Hotter, more energetic objects and events create higher energy radiation than cool objects. Only extremely hot objects or particles moving at very high velocities can create high-energy radiation like X-rays and gamma-rays. • http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l1/emspectrum.html --- RADIO WAVES Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Like all other electromagnetic waves, they travel at the speed of light. Naturally-occurring radio waves are made by lightning, or by astronomical objects. Artificially-generated radio waves are used for fixed and mobile radio communication, broadcasting, radar and other navigation systems, satellite communication, computer networks and innumerable other applications. Different frequencies of radio waves have different propagation characteristics in the Earth's atmosphere; long waves may cover a part of the Earth very consistently, shorter waves can reflect off the ionosphere and travel around the world, and much shorter wavelengths bend or reflect very little and travel on a line of sight. Discovery and utilization: Radio waves were first predicted by mathematical work done in 1865 by James Clerk Maxwell. Maxwell noticed wavelike properties of light and similarities in electrical and magnetic observations. He then proposed equations, that described light waves and radio waves as waves of electromagnetism that travel in space. In 1887, Heinrich Hertz demonstrated the reality of Maxwell's electromagnetic waves by experimentally generating radio waves in his laboratory. Many inventions followed, making practical the use of radio waves to transfer information through space. Propagation: The study of electromagnetic phenomena such as reflection, refraction, polarization, diffraction and absorption is of critical importance in the study of how radio waves move in free space and over the surface of the Earth. Different frequencies experience different combinations of these phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere, making certain radio bands more useful for specific purposes than others. Radio communication: In order to receive radio signals, for instance from AM/FM radio stations, a radio antenna must be used. However, since the antenna will pick up thousands of radio signals at a time, a radio tuner is necessary to tune in to a particular frequency (or frequency range). This is typically done via a resonator (in its simplest form, a circuit with a capacitor and an inductor). The resonator is configured to resonate at a particular frequency (or frequency band), thus amplifying sine waves at that radio frequency, while ignoring other sine waves. Usually, either the inductor or the capacitor of the resonator is adjustable, allowing the user to change the frequency at which it resonates. In medicine: Radio frequency (RF) energy has been used in medical treatments for over 75 years generally for minimally invasive surgeries and coagulation, including the treatment of sleep apnea. • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_waves .
Views: 371170 Best0fScience
Brief History of Signal Processing
 
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http://AllSignalProcessing.com for more great signal processing content, including concept/screenshot files, quizzes, MATLAB and data files. Describes several key events in development of the field of signal processing.
Views: 5025 Barry Van Veen
Radio Waves
 
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What are Radio Waves and how do they work?
Views: 568715 TheOnLineEngineer
Information theory: Entropy
 
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An explanation of entropy in information theory and how to calculate it. (The last video ran long, so I had to slice it up.) More on information theory: http://tinyurl.com/zozlx http://tinyurl.com/8bueub http://tinyurl.com/bfpu8b http://tinyurl.com/as2txv http://tinyurl.com/dcsgt2 http://tinyurl.com/ct5phc The music is the third movement of Carl Maria von Weber's Clarinet Concerto No. 2, as performed by the Skidmore College Orchestra. http://www.musopen.com/music.php?type=piece&id=67 http://myspace.com/zjemptv http://emptv.com/
Views: 104945 Zinnia Jones
Data Transmission 3: Channel Capacity
 
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Some important formulas relating to channel capacity are explained. Specifically, Nyquist bandwidth and Shannon capacity.
Views: 26458 Jacob Schrum
Radio Basics: "Sending Radio Messages" 1943 ERPI Classroom Films
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Electronics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLAA9B0175C3E15B47 Radio Broadcasting & Old Time Radio playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL18A480E27C4EDD07 Shortwave & Military Radio playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA4AC5A9478CECACC more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ "Much great footage of radio equipment and animated radio waves also great footage of radio operators on land, sea and air." Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by electromagnetic waves with frequencies significantly below visible light, in the radio frequency range, from about 3 kHz to 300 GHz. These waves are called radio waves. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. Information, such as sound, is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form... Transmitter and modulation Each system contains a transmitter. This consists of a source of electrical energy, producing alternating current of a desired frequency of oscillation. The transmitter contains a system to modulate (change) some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it. This modulation might be as simple as turning the energy on and off, or altering more subtle properties such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or combinations of these properties. The transmitter sends the modulated electrical energy to a tuned resonant antenna; this structure converts the rapidly changing alternating current into an electromagnetic wave that can move through free space (sometimes with a particular polarization). Amplitude modulation of a carrier wave works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in proportion to the information being sent... It was the method used for the first audio radio transmissions, and remains in use today. "AM" is often used to refer to the mediumwave broadcast band (see AM radio). Frequency modulation varies the frequency of the carrier. The instantaneous frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal... FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech (see FM broadcasting). Normal (analog) TV sound is also broadcast using FM... An antenna (or aerial) is an electrical device which converts electric currents into radio waves, and vice versa. It is usually used with a radio transmitter or radio receiver. In transmission, a radio transmitter applies an oscillating radio frequency electric current to the antenna's terminals, and the antenna radiates the energy from the current as electromagnetic waves (radio waves). In reception, an antenna intercepts some of the power of an electromagnetic wave in order to produce a tiny voltage at its terminals, that is applied to a receiver to be amplified. An antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving... Once generated, electromagnetic waves travel through space either directly, or have their path altered by reflection, refraction or diffraction. The intensity of the waves diminishes due to geometric dispersion (the inverse-square law); some energy may also be absorbed... Electrical resonance of tuned circuits in radios allow individual stations to be selected. A resonant circuit will respond strongly to a particular frequency, and much less so to differing frequencies. This allows the radio receiver to discriminate between multiple signals differing in frequency... The electromagnetic wave is intercepted by a tuned receiving antenna; this structure captures some of the energy of the wave and returns it to the form of oscillating electrical currents. At the receiver, these currents are demodulated, which is conversion to a usable signal form by a detector sub-system. The receiver is "tuned" to respond preferentially to the desired signals, and reject undesired signals. Early radio systems relied entirely on the energy collected by an antenna to produce signals for the operator...
Views: 22031 Jeff Quitney
What is an Analog Signal?
 
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Digital Electronics: What is an Analog Signal? Contribute: http://www.nesoacademy.org/donate Take the Quiz: https://goo.gl/dZxUW1 Website ► http://www.nesoacademy.org/ Subscribe ► https://www.youtube.com/user/nesoacademy/featured Facebook ► https://goo.gl/Nt0PmB Twitter ► https://twitter.com/nesoacademy Pinterest ► http://www.pinterest.com/nesoacademy/
Views: 181001 Neso Academy
Signals and Systems | IIT BombayX on edX | Course About Video
 
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This course provides the basic toolkit for any signal processing application - the abstraction of signals and systems, from the point of view of analysis and characterization. ↓ More info below. ↓ Take this course free on edX: https://www.edx.org/course/signals-systems-part-1-iitbombayx-ee210-1x-1#! ABOUT THIS COURSE We encounter signals and systems extensively in our day-to-day lives, from making a phone call, listening to a song, editing photos, manipulating audio files, using speech recognition softwares like Siri and Google now, to taking EEGs, ECGs and X-Ray images. Each of these involves gathering, storing, transmitting and processing information from the physical world. This course will equip you to deal with these tasks efficiently by learning the basic mathematical framework of signals and systems. This course is divided into two parts. In the first part (EE210.1x), we explore the various properties of signals and systems, characterization of Linear Shift Invariant Systems, convolution and Fourier Transform. Building on that, in the 2nd part (EE210.2x) we will deal with the Sampling theorem, Z-Transform, discrete Fourier transform and Laplace transform. The contents of the first part are prerequisites for doing this part. Ideas introduced in this course will be useful in understanding further electrical engineering courses which deal with control systems, communication systems, power systems, digital signal processing, statistical signal analysis and digital message transmission. The concepts taught in this course are also useful to students of other disciplines like mechanical, chemical, aerospace and other branches of engineering and science. What you'll learn - How to unite abstractions for several kinds of systems, to draw a common system description - How to identify properties that this system has or does not have - How to deal with an important class of systems namely, linear shift invariant systems - How to represent and analyze signals and systems in the Fourier domain
Views: 12876 edX
Wave, Modulation, AM, FM Basics
 
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In this lecture, we use an Analog Arts (http://analogarts.com/) SL987 oscilloscope to review the basics of waves, antennas, modulation concept, AM, and FM. Waves transfer energy without moving matter, similar to ocean waves or sun light. In general in air, electromagnetic waves such as radio signals travel longer than mechanical waves such as sound. To transmit information over very long distances, electromagnetic waves are used. Electromagnetic waves or EM waves spread without the need for a medium, travel at the speed of light, do not lose energy in vacuum, and can travel forever. Using a signal frequency of about 850 kHz, in December 1901, Guglielmo Marconi received the first transatlantic radio signals, the Morse code for the letter "S". An antenna converts an electrical signal to EM waves to make it transmittable. The length of the antenna inversely depends on the frequency of the signal. For low frequency signals such as electrical representation of sound out of a microphone, the size of the antenna grows to hundreds of kilometers, making the transmission impractical. Modulation overcomes this problem by mixing the low frequency information with a high frequency sinusoidal. In the modulation process, a low frequency information signal is put on a higher frequency sine wave, to produce a new waveform, which is suitable for transmission. The information is referred to as the modulating signal, the sine wave as the carrier signal, and the mix as the modulated carrier wave. Modulation process can be viewed as a ride carrying cargo from one place to another, where the cargo is the message and the ride is the carrier signal. At the destination, the detected signal is mixed with the carrier, and the resulting signal is filtered to produce the message. This process is called demodulation. AM and FM are two of the most popular modulation techniques. In AM the amplitude of the modulated signal represents the message. In FM however, the frequency of the modulated signal characterizes the message. Modulation concept is the process of varying one or more properties of a high frequency periodic waveform, referred to as the carrier signal, with an information signal, to transmit the information. It is like throwing a paper note across a distance by wrapping it around a stone. Since a sine wave is completely defined by its amplitude, frequency, and phase, in a modulation process, one or a combination of these properties is altered by the modulation signal. Once a low frequency wave is modulated, it travels longer and requires smaller transmission antennas. Modulation also allows multiple transmissions, each with its own unique carrier frequency. Each modulation technique offers its own benefits and is intended for a particular application. Both AM and FM techniques are widely used. Since lower frequencies are reflected better by the electrically charged atoms in the ionosphere, AM waves are spread in a wider area, particularly at night when the ionosphere is not affected by sun. An important advantage of FM is that it is not disturbed by outside interferences. Therefore, FM results in a higher quality transmission. The advent of digital signal processing, gave birth to digital modulation. Conceptually it is like analog modulation. However, it uses a discrete signal to modulate the carrier signal. Please join us.
Views: 2350 Academia
Communication Systems  - Rate of Information
 
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Communication Systems - Rate of Information -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "Communication Systems - Wideband FM" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jICWam9E0Hw -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Neurons or nerve cells - Structure function and types of neurons | Human Anatomy | 3D Biology
 
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Neurons or nerve cells - Structure and function | Human Anatomy | Biology The nervous system is an essential part of the human body that helps in the transmission of signals across the various parts of the body, that is, it releases messages back and forth from the brain to the different parts of the body, and also helps in the coordination of voluntary and involuntary actions of the body. At the cellular level, the nervous system consists of a special type of cell, called the neuron, also known as a "nerve cell". The neurons connect to each other using a synapse (which is a structure that acts like a pathway connection that transmits the signals to the other cells) to form the nervous system. Neurons have special structures that allow them to send signals rapidly and precisely to other cells by providing a common pathway for the passage of these electrochemical nerve impulses. Neurons are responsive in nature, by which we imply that Neurons response to feelings and communicate the presence of that feeling to the central nervous system which in-turn is processed and is sent to the other parts of the body for action. The neurons are the basic constituents of the brain, vertebral spinal cord, the ventral nerve cord and the peripheral ganglia( which is a mass of nerve cell bodies). Nervous system Neurons can be categorized into three types: sensory neurons, motor neurons and inter neurons. Sensory neurons allow us to receive information from the outside world through our senses. The sensory neurons evoke the sensation of touch, pain, vision, hearing and taste. These are usually present in the sensory organs, like the eyes, inner ear and so on, which send these signals to the spinal cord and the brain. Inter neurons communicate and connect with each other, and represent the majority of the neurons in our brain. They allow us to think see and perceive our surroundings. Motor neurons are neurons that receive impulses from the spinal cord or the brain and send them to the muscles causing muscular contraction, and these also affect the gland secretion. A typical neuron has a "soma" in its centre, which contains the nucleus of the cell. And hence this is where the protein synthesis occurs. The neural function is based on the synaptic signalling (the pathway that helps in the transmission of signals) process, which is partly electrical and partly chemical. The electrical aspect depends on properties of the neuron's membrane. Every neuron is surrounded by a plasma membrane, which is a bilayer of lipid molecules that comprise of various protein structures. A lipid bilayer is a powerful electrical insulator, but in neurons, many of the protein structures embedded in the membrane are electrically active. Cell division cannot take place in neurons as they lack one of the two cylindrical cellular structures that aid in cell division. This is consistent with a simple cell division nature of the cell. Dendrites are extensions of the cell with many branches, whose structure can be called as a "dendritic tree" . They project from the cell body and are sometimes referred to as fibres. They are also called as afferent processes because they transmit impulses to the neuron cell body . There is only one axon that projects from each cell body, which is a finer cable-like projector. It is usually elongated and it carries impulses away from the cell body, that is, away from the 'soma'. It is an efferent process. many axons are surrounded by a segmented white fatty substance called myelin sheaths.
Views: 886619 Elearnin
BTEC National Level 3 in IT ( Signal theory )
 
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2.2 Signal theory This section looks how data is sent across a network from one computer system to another. All computers communicate using a variety of media (light, radio, electrical and microwave). The principles are based on electronics and physics. Digital signalling methods The following shows the properties of a data transmission being sent from one computer system to another. The sine wave has two properties of interest: amplitude and frequency. A in the following diagram represents amplitude or strength of the signal, and can be explained simply by the volume or loudness. The higher the amplitude of the signal, the louder and stronger it is – the lower the amplitude, the quieter and weaker it becomes. With any transmission, higher amplitude signals will travel further. For different systems, amplitude has a different meanings, as follows. • Radio and microwave both use the same method of transmission: radio waves. For all radio waves, the amplitude of the waveform is measured in metric terms (meters or millimetres). • All cables reply on electrical current, the strength of which is measured in volts. The current in a normal data cable is +/-5 – any higher a voltage may damage the sensitive computer equipment. A telephone cable can carry up to +/- 50 V. The range of the signal switches from positive voltage to negative voltage and is referred to as AC (alternating current). • With light, the brighter the light source, the stronger the signal. Most fibre optic cable use infrared or laser-generated light; the difference between these two light sources affects the distance the signal can travel and the speed of the line. F represents the frequency of the signal. The frequency is the rise and fall of the waveform from zero to bottom, then to the top and back to zero, shaped like a rollercoaster ride. This is called a cycle and is measured in hertz (Hz). A low frequency signal has a smaller number of cycles per second; a higher frequency signal can have billions of cycles per second (such as GHz or MHz) Representing data electronically Based on the technology used on a sine wave, data is transmitted as a square (or digital) wave. All computers use binary in which each bit of information is represented as a 0 (zero) for the off state and 1 (one) for the on state. The binary is organised in chains of bits, called bytes or words according to the system that is going to use it. For example, 01001100 is a single byte that represents the decimal value of 76 or the ASCII or AMERICAN STANDARD CODE FOR INFORMATION INTERCHANGE, value of ‘v’. Sending data from one computer to another is called encoding and various formats exist according to the system being used (wireless, fibre or electrical cable). Common formats are Manchester encoding or Huffman coding. Encoding is not a new concept – it is more than 160 years since Samuel Morse developed Morse code to be used on the new electrical telegraph. He created a system of combinations of two signals (a short pulse called a dot and a long pulse called a dash), similar to the binary zero and one. The system was invented so that the telegraph operator could key in a message in any language at a relative fast speed. Encoding that is used to send data across a computer network is based on a signal ‘square’ wave, which is an adaption of the sine wave. In order to avoid data being lost or the computer system being confused (which would cause an error), there are two simple rules when sending data. 1. All binary zero (off) are sent at high amplitude so there is no confusion with the ‘power off’ of no signal being sent. This is like the Morse code dash. 2. All binary ones (on) are sent at a mid-range amplitude to contrast with the rules of the binary zero. This is like the Morse code dot. The following diagram that the frequency of the signal is fixed (although this value will vary according to the speed of the transmission medium), but the amplitude is varied and based on a zero or one coming through the line. To ensure that data is successfully transmitted, an agreed common method is used for sending the data, one that can be managed by all computer systems.
Views: 727 Kandu Education Ltd
Even and Odd Signals | Signals and Systems | EC
 
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Real Life Applications: Symmetry is an important property in Signals. Even in nature, it is observed that symmetry plays an important role whether it is a human body or plants around us. It also adds an aesthetic sense to it. It can help to reduce computations and therefore reduce the delay in processing. Its a basic concept that is learnt so that it will help in other advanced topics like Fourier series and Transform etc. Explanation: Signal is said to be even or symmetric if the time reversed signal is equal to the signal itself. Signal is an odd or anti-symmetric when the time reversed signal is equal to negation of signal. When signal does not satisfy the above two, it is non-Symmetric in nature. This topic, can be related with the concept of transpose in engineering mathematics where the symmetric and skew symmetric matrices are discussed. Shortcut to find whether the signal is even or odd just by looking at the graph has been discussed. In case the signal is neither even nor odd, the signal can be written in terms of even component and odd component. The Video contains the formulae for the same. In Actual classes we apply the concept for the complex valued signals which are encountered in analysis. THE GATE ACADEMY- Blogs https://goo.gl/nE8qwu https://goo.gl/Ktn8XS THE GATE ACADEMY provide comprehensive and rigorous coaching for the GATE exams. Our student-centred guidance focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of each student. This has enabled us to achieve a proven track record of GATE toppers from our institute. THE GATE ACADEMY appreciates diversity in requirements and hence have tailor-made digital & distance learning courses for addressing these different needs. For more information, please write back to us at [email protected] Call us at: 080- 61766222
Views: 2465 THE GATE ACADEMY
EE102: Introduction to Signals & Systems, Lecture 1
 
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These lectures are from the EE102, the Stanford course on signals and systems, taught by Stephen Boyd in the spring quarter of 1999. More information is available at https://web.stanford.edu/~boyd/ee102/
Views: 4269 Stanford
Information Theory part 8: Channel capacity (baud rate)
 
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Introduction to channel capacity, symbol rate (baud) & message space. This is the first step towards more modern measures of information. Featuring the Baudot multiplex system & Thomas Edison's quadruplex telegraph. Play with the pulse generator! http://www.khanacademy.org/cs/symbol-rate-exploration/1528686552 Play with message space generator! http://www.khanacademy.org/cs/message-space-exploration-edit-copy/1528863275 References: Transmission of Information - R. V. L. Hartley An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise - John R. Pierce
Views: 28417 Art of the Problem
Signal Transduction Pathways
 
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038 - Signal Transduction Pathways.mov Paul Andersen explains how signal transduction pathways are used by cells to convert chemical messages to cellular action. Epinephrine is used as a sample messenger to trigger the release of glucose from cells in the liver. The G-Protein, adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, and protein kinases are all used as illustrative examples of signal transduction. A review of the concepts is also included. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Dora and Boots.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, October 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dora_and_Boots.jpg&oldid=468219594. "File:Jimi Hendrix 1967 Uncropped.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jimi_Hendrix_1967_uncropped.jpg. "File:MarshallStack Slayer.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MarshallStack_Slayer.jpg. "File:Pickup-SSH.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pickup-SSH.jpg. Juancoronado1974. English: Phospholipid Bilayer, November 23, 2013. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bilayer.png.
Views: 941099 Bozeman Science
Communication with ETI - David Messerschmitt (SETI Talks)
 
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The search for extraterrestrial intelligence has sought radio beacons devoid of information content. It seems likely, however, that a civilization transmitting a radio signal intended for our detection will also be motivated to embed information within the signal, especially in view of the large speed-of-light latencies. Successful exchange of information by radio with intelligent civilizations in distant solar systems requires an understanding of the end-to-end communication system design, including resources available to transmitter and receiver and properties of radio propagation in the interstellar medium. Although interstellar space is nearly an ideal vacuum, it contains sufficient low- density plasma to profoundly affect radio transmission over interstellar distances. The primary impairments are attenuation, thermal noise, plasma dispersion, scattering, and interference in the vicinity of the receiver. The most difficult technical challenge is initial discovery of a signal, and the primary obstacles are the infeasibility of coordination between transmitter and receiver and related "needle in a haystack" issues. Impairments are actually helpful as an implicit form of coordination through constraining design choices as well as constraining the size of the "haystack". In this talk, Dr. Messerschmitt will address end-to- end communication system design emphasizing noise, dispersion, and interference, deferring scattering to future work. He will show that an effective means of countering interference without compromising noise immunity is spread spectrum signaling, and proceed to characterize the effect of plasma dispersion upon these broadband signals. The conclusion is that while design considerations provide guidance as to carrier frequencies and bandwidth and time duration of signals, there is also a demonstrated tradeoff between transmit power and the computational burden placed on the receiver.
Views: 5004 SETI Institute
EE102: Introduction to Signals & Systems, Lecture 5
 
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These lectures are from the EE102, the Stanford course on signals and systems, taught by Stephen Boyd in the spring quarter of 1999. More information is available at https://web.stanford.edu/~boyd/ee102/
Views: 381 Stanford
Introduction To Light |  It's Types & Properties  | Physics | Science
 
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This short video explains one of the most important thing around us -- "Light" . Session Covers : 1. Introduction to light as known through the ages. 2. What light is ! 3. Types of light in the electromagnetic spectrum 4. Properties of light. 5. Concept of wave length frequency & Energy Subscribe Us For More Updates: Link : https://goo.gl/bfusQt Website : http://www.letstute.com/ To Get Regular Content Updates- Like Us On Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/letstutepage Follow Us On Twitter : https://twitter.com/lets_tute Add Us On Google+ for updates on our upcoming Videos https://plus.google.com/+Letstute Email us @ [email protected] WhatsApp your Queries on +91 7506363600 Visit our other channels LetsTute Cbse Math https://goo.gl/Q5xVCN LetsTute Accountancy http://bit.ly/1VvIMWD Values to Lead (Value Education) http://bit.ly/1poLX8j
Views: 206908 Letstute
The Nervous System, Part 2 - Action! Potential!: Crash Course A&P #9
 
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•••SUBBABLE MESSAGE••• TO: Carla FROM: Christopher Next stop is whenever. Just be like, "stop." *** You can directly support Crash Course at http://www.subbable.com/crashcourse Subscribe for as little as $0 to keep up with everything we're doing. Also, if you can afford to pay a little every month, it really helps us to continue producing great content. *** What do you and a sack of batteries have in common? Today, Hank explains. -- Table of Contents: Ion Channels Regulate Electrochemistry to Create Action Potential 4:51 Resting State 3:22 Depolarization 6:09 Repolarization 7:35 Hyperpolarization 8:00 -- CRASH COURSE KIDS! http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 2969169 CrashCourse
LEC-11-Communications-Data Transmission
 
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Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.
Views: 15 STR1 GATEACADEMY
Standard Signal in Signals and Systems | Definition of standard Signals
 
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Networks, Signals and Systems Network solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis; Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s, maximum power transfer; Wye‐Delta transformation; Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors; Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits; Solution of network equations using Laplace transform; Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits; Linear 2‐port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions; State equations for networks. Continuous-time signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform representations, sampling theorem and applications; Discrete-time signals: discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), DFT, FFT, Z-transform, interpolation of discrete-time signals; LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, digital filter design techniques. Electronic Devices Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon; Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity; Generation and recombination of carriers; Poisson and continuity equations; P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell; Integrated circuit fabrication process: oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography and twin-tub CMOS process. Analog Circuits Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs and MOSFETs; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifiers; Single-stage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, bias stability, mid-frequency small signal analysis and frequency response; BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: multi-stage, differential, feedback, power and operational; Simple op-amp circuits; Active filters; Sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, single-transistor and opamp configurations; Function generators, wave-shaping circuits and 555 timers; Voltage reference circuits; Power supplies: ripple removal and regulation. Digital Circuits Number systems; Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and PLAs; Sequential circuits: latches and flip‐flops, counters, shift‐registers and finite state machines; Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs; Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM; 8-bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing. Control Systems Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems. Communications Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA. Electromagnetics Electrostatics; Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector; Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth; Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart; Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cut-off frequencies, dispersion relations; Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays; Basics of radar; Light propagation in optical fibers.
Views: 6 Gate Forum
13. PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) (Cont.)
 
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For More Video lectures from IIT Professors .......visit www.satishkashyap.com "DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS" by Prof. S. Chakrabarti, IIT KGP 1. Syllabus and Overview 2. EM Spectrum and Narrowband Signals 3. Introduction to Digital Communication Systems 4. Introduction to Information Theoretic Approach 5. Introduction to Information Theoretic Approach & Discrete Probability 6. Discrete Probability 7. Measure of Information 8. Average Mutual Information & Entropy 9. Huffman coding 10. Huffman coding & Error Control Coding 11. Error Control Coding & Hamming Code 12. Quantization & PCM 13. PCM (Cont.) 14. Uniform Quantization 15. Non Uniform Quantization 16. Non Uniform Quantization (Cont..) 17. DPCM 18. DPCM (Cont..) 19. Data Modulation 20. Data Modulation (Cont..) 21. Multiplexing 22. Multiplexing (Cont..) 23. Multiplexing Cont.. & Signal Design 24. Gram Schmidt Orthogonalization 25. GramSchmidt Orthogonalization (Cont..) 26. Signal Space & Maximum Likelihood Detection 27. Signal Space & Maximum Likelihood Detection (Cont..) 28. Signal Space & Maximum Likelihood Detection (Cont..) 29. Digital Modulation 30. Digital Modulation (Cont..) 31. Digital Modulation (Cont..) 32. Digital Modulation (Cont..) 33. Digital Modulation (Cont..) 34. Response Of Bank Of Correlators 35. Error Performance of QPSK 36. Error Performance of BFSK & M-ARY PSK 37. Power Spectra 38. Matched Filter Receiver 39. Carrier & Timing Recovery; Non Coherent DeModulation
Views: 12576 kashyap B
NMR spectroscopy
 
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NMR spectroscopy lecture by Suman Bhattacharjee - This lecture explains about the NMR spectroscopy basics. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy, is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei. It determines the physical and chemical properties of atoms or the molecules in which they are contained. It relies on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and can provide detailed information about the structure, dynamics, reaction state, and chemical environment of molecules. The intramolecular magnetic field around an atom in a molecule changes the resonance frequency, thus giving access to details of the electronic structure of a molecule. Most frequently, NMR spectroscopy is used by chemists and biochemists to investigate the properties of organic molecules, although it is applicable to any kind of sample that contains nuclei possessing spin. Suitable samples range from small compounds analyzed with 1-dimensional proton or carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy to large proteins or nucleic acids using 3 or 4-dimensional techniques. The impact of NMR spectroscopy on the sciences has been substantial because of the range of information and the diversity of samples, including solutions and solids. NMR spectra are unique, well-resolved, analytically tractable and often highly predictable for small molecules. Thus, in organic chemistry practice, NMR analysis is used to confirm the identity of a substance. Different functional groups are obviously distinguishable, and identical functional groups with differing neighboring substituents still give distinguishable signals. NMR has largely replaced traditional wet chemistry tests such as color reagents for identification. A disadvantage is that a relatively large amount, 2–50 mg, of a purified substance is required, although it may be recovered. Preferably, the sample should be dissolved in a solvent, because NMR analysis of solids requires a dedicated MAS machine and may not give equally well-resolved spectra. The timescale of NMR is relatively long, and thus it is not suitable for observing fast phenomena, producing only an averaged spectrum. Although large amounts of impurities do show on an NMR spectrum, better methods exist for detecting impurities, as NMR is inherently not very sensitive. NMR spectrometers are relatively expensive; universities usually have them, but they are less common in private companies. Modern NMR spectrometers have a very strong, large and expensive liquid helium-cooled superconducting magnet, because resolution directly depends on magnetic field strength. Less expensive machines using permanent magnets and lower resolution are also available, which still give sufficient performance for certain application such as reaction monitoring and quick checking of samples. There are even benchtop NMR spectrometers. This important and well-established application of nuclear magnetic resonance will serve to illustrate some of the novel aspects of this method. To begin with, the nmr spectrometer must be tuned to a specific nucleus, in this case the proton. The actual procedure for obtaining the spectrum varies, but the simplest is referred to as the continuous wave (CW) method. A typical CW-spectrometer is shown in the following diagram. Article source - Wikipedia.org For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching NMR spectroscopy lecture by Suman Bhattacharjee.
Views: 280478 Shomu's Biology
What Is Modulated Signal?
 
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Modulation wikipediawhat is modulation? Definition from whatis searchnetworking. The carrier wave can be produced using any modulation is a process through which audio, video, image or text information added to an electrical optical signal transmitted over 15 jun 2015 there are three aspects of that modulatedwireless signals originally only had single frequency, frequency would modulated impose the data on it. A carrier signal is one with a steady waveform constant height (amplitude) and frequency modulation process of mixing sinusoid to produce new. Wireless fundamentals modulation cisco meraki. Signal, conceivably, will have certain benefits over an un modulated signal modulation and radio building blocks. In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties a periodic waveform, called carrier signal, with modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted 9 jul 2015 addition an electronic optical. Amplitude,modulation,am,signal radio electronics modulation techniques. Communication systems what is modulation? Wikibooks, open how does modulation work? Modulating signal definition and meaning dictionary central. Wikipedia wiki modulation url? Q webcache. Also called the original data carrying signal whose frequency has been changed by mixing it with high carrier is modulated modulation process of superimposing information contents a modulating on (which frequency) varying looking for signal? Find out about. Modulation wikipedia en. Phase and frequency modulation are the two other types of signal processing modulationthe nature electronic signalsstatic quasi static signals. Static signals are by definition unchanging over in order that a steady radio signal or 'radio carrier' can carry information it must be changed modulated one way so the conveyed 30 jan 2017 sent from transmitter to receiver means of modulation and demodulation, respectively, whether those light 6 apr 2014 why do we modulate during transmission demodulation receiving? Why don't send directly without y modulate(x,fc,fs, 'method', opt) real message x with carrier frequency fc sampling fs, using options listed sep is nothing but, varies accordance. Signal which causes a variation of some characteristics carrier explanation modulating signal is the carrying information. Radio basics of modulation and demodulation microwaves rf. What is modulated signal answers. Modulation, modulation definition, types of article about modulating signal by the free difference between carrier wave and signal? Modulation amplitude,frequency,phase modulation. In other words modulating signal definition a which varies the amplitude, frequency, or phase of carrier wave so as to convey meaningful information. How does modulation this process of imposing an input signal onto a carrier wave is called. Googleusercontent search. What is modulation? Definition from techopedia. Modulation technique is used to change the. The modulating signal i
Views: 138 Aile Aile
Neuronal Signals for Economic Utility - W. Schultz - 6/1/17
 
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T & C Chen Center for Social and Decision Neuroscience Distinguished Lecture “Neuronal Signals for Economic Utility” Wolfram Schultz, Professor of Neuroscience, University of Cambridge Wolfram Schultz works on the biological basis of reward. He uses behavioral concepts from animal learning and economic decision theories to study the neurophysiology and neuroimaging of reward and risk in individual neurons and in specific brain regions, including the dopamine system, striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, and amygdala. Schultz discovered the phasic reward signal of dopamine neurons and showed that it coded reward prediction error. His group also discovered the first neuronal risk signals, and he imaged the first human brain reward signal with Nico Leenders. His current interests concern adaptive and reference dependent reward value coding (a cornerstone of prospect theory), influence of risk on reward value (as conceptualized by economic decision theory), neuronal coding of economic utility, reward and decision signals in amygdala, and reward processing in social settings. Schultz has received numerous honors and awards for his research, including the 2017 Brain Prize, which recognizes his outstanding contribution to European neuroscience. This inaugural distinguished lecture is sponsored by the T&C Chen Center for Social and Decision Neuroscience, one of five interdisciplinary research centers affiliated with the Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute for Neuroscience at Caltech. The Chen Institute at Caltech, founded in 2016 with the generous support of philanthropists Tianqiao Chen and Chrissy Luo, brings together a cross-disciplinary team of scientists and engineers to investigate one of today's greatest challenges and opportunities: understanding the brain and how it works. More information: For more information see the Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute for Neuroscience website: http://neuroscience.caltech.edu/ Event Sponsor: Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences: http://www.hss.caltech.edu/ More events from this Sponsor: http://www.caltech.edu/master-calendar/event-sponsor/9029/2017
Views: 1616 caltech
8. Average Mutual Information and Entropy
 
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For More Video lectures from IIT Professors .......visit www.satishkashyap.com "DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS" by Prof. S. Chakrabarti, IIT KGP 1. Syllabus and Overview 2. EM Spectrum and Narrowband Signals 3. Introduction to Digital Communication Systems 4. Introduction to Information Theoretic Approach 5. Introduction to Information Theoretic Approach & Discrete Probability 6. Discrete Probability 7. Measure of Information 8. Average Mutual Information & Entropy 9. Huffman coding 10. Huffman coding & Error Control Coding 11. Error Control Coding & Hamming Code 12. Quantization & PCM 13. PCM (Cont.) 14. Uniform Quantization 15. Non Uniform Quantization 16. Non Uniform Quantization (Cont..) 17. DPCM 18. DPCM (Cont..) 19. Data Modulation 20. Data Modulation (Cont..) 21. Multiplexing 22. Multiplexing (Cont..) 23. Multiplexing Cont.. & Signal Design 24. Gram Schmidt Orthogonalization 25. GramSchmidt Orthogonalization (Cont..) 26. Signal Space & Maximum Likelihood Detection 27. Signal Space & Maximum Likelihood Detection (Cont..) 28. Signal Space & Maximum Likelihood Detection (Cont..) 29. Digital Modulation 30. Digital Modulation (Cont..) 31. Digital Modulation (Cont..) 32. Digital Modulation (Cont..) 33. Digital Modulation (Cont..) 34. Response Of Bank Of Correlators 35. Error Performance of QPSK 36. Error Performance of BFSK & M-ARY PSK 37. Power Spectra 38. Matched Filter Receiver 39. Carrier & Timing Recovery; Non Coherent DeModulation
Views: 8543 kashyap B
The Nervous System, Part 1: Crash Course A&P #8
 
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•••SUBBABLE MESSAGE••• TO: Kerry FROM: Cale I love you with all my ha-art. Deadset. *** You can directly support Crash Course at http://www.subbable.com/crashcourse Subscribe for as little as $0 to keep up with everything we're doing. Also, if you can afford to pay a little every month, it really helps us to continue producing great content. *** Today Hank kicks off our look around MISSION CONTROL: your nervous system. -- Table of Contents: Sensory Input, Integration and Motor Output 1:36 Organization of Central and Peripheral Systems 2:16 Glial Cells 3:54 Role, Anatomy and Function of Neuron Types 5:23 Structure and Function of Neurons 6:20 -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 3533023 CrashCourse
Communication Systems Part-14 (Important Gate Questions-AM) || GATE Lectures for ECE
 
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Let's Contribute to Great Purpose of providing Free Education http://lectures4free.blogspot.in/p/donate.html __ Subscribe our YouTube channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9A3kW89pTj9yVPbedY3WMg _ Like our Facebook page https://www.facebook.com/lectures4free/ _ Follow us on twitter https://twitter.com/Jittu0106 _ GATE Book Suggestions https://www.amazon.in/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&field-keywords=made+easy+gate+paper ___ Download Handwritten Lecture Notes from Link given below https://drive.google.com/open?id=14Xk-tV7DlPFLwOIQmCe3DWyNAH8hexXV _ This GATE lecture of Communication Systems on topic "" will help the GATE aspirants engineering students to understand following topic: __ This Gate Lectures of Communication Systems is very useful for preparation of GATE exam. This lecture series covers Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.
Views: 2585 Lectures4 free
Sparse Representations in Signal and Image Processing: Fundamentals | IsraelX on edX
 
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Take this course free on edX: https://www.edx.org/course/sparse-representations-signal-image-israelx-236862-1x Learn about the field of sparse representations by understanding its fundamental theoretical and algorithmic foundations. ABOUT THIS COURSE This course introduces the fundamentals of the field of sparse representations, starting with its theoretical concepts, and systematically presenting its key achievements. We will touch on theory and numerical algorithms. Modeling data is the way we – scientists – believe that information should be explained and handled. Indeed, models play a central role in practically every task in signal and image processing. Sparse representation theory puts forward an emerging, highly effective, and universal such model. Its core idea is the description of the data as a linear combination of few building blocks – atoms – taken from a pre-defined dictionary of such fundamental elements. A series of theoretical problems arise in deploying this seemingly simple model to data sources, leading to fascinating new results in linear algebra, approximation theory, optimization, and machine learning. In this course you will learn of these achievements, which serve as the foundations for a revolution that took place in signal and image processing in recent years. WHAT YOU'LL LEARN About the fundamental ideas of sparse representation theory – exploring properties such as uniqueness, equivalence, and stability. About sparse coding algorithms and their proven ability to perform well.
Views: 4378 edX
LEC-6 Communication-Frequency Modulation Part-3
 
01:00:00
Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.
Views: 5 STR1 GATEACADEMY
Communication Systems Part-24 (Important GATE Questions) || GATE Lectures for ECE
 
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Let's Contribute to Great Purpose of providing Free Education http://lectures4free.blogspot.in/p/donate.html __ Subscribe our YouTube channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9A3kW89pTj9yVPbedY3WMg _ Like our Facebook page https://www.facebook.com/lectures4free/ _ Follow us on twitter https://twitter.com/Jittu0106 _ GATE Book Suggestions https://www.amazon.in/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&field-keywords=made+easy+gate+paper ___ Download Handwritten Lecture Notes from Link given below https://drive.google.com/open?id=14Xk-tV7DlPFLwOIQmCe3DWyNAH8hexXV _ This GATE lecture of Communication Systems on topic "" will help the GATE aspirants engineering students to understand following topic: __ This Gate Lectures of Communication Systems is very useful for preparation of GATE exam. This lecture series covers Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.
Views: 2275 Lectures4 free
Lecture 10, Discrete-Time Fourier Series | MIT RES.6.007 Signals and Systems, Spring 2011
 
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Lecture 10, Discrete-Time Fourier Series Instructor: Alan V. Oppenheim View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/RES-6.007S11 License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 50369 MIT OpenCourseWare
The qualitative difference between stationary and non-stationary AR(1)
 
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This video explains the qualitative difference between stationary and non-stationary AR(1) processes, and provides a simulation at the end in Matlab/Octave to demonstrate the difference. clear; close all; clc; n=10000; % Setting the number of time periods equal to 10000. b=1; rho=1; %This is the coefficient on the lagged part of x x=zeros(n,1); % Initialise the vector x x(1)=0; for i = 2:n x(i)=rho*x(i-1)+b*randn(); end zoom=1.0; FigHandle = figure('Position', [750, 300, 1049*zoom, 895*zoom]); plot(x, 'LineWidth', 1.4) ylabel('X(t)') xlabel('t') I also include the same in R (Courtesy of Jesse Maurais): z = rnorm(1000) gen = function(rho) { x = numeric(length(z)) x[1] = z[1] for (i in 2:length(z)) { x[i] = rho*x[i-1] + z[i] } x } display = function(rho) { x = gen(rho) plot(x, main=as.character(rho)) lines(x) } for (it in 1:100) { display(it/100) Sys.sleep(0.5) } Check out https://ben-lambert.com/econometrics-course-problem-sets-and-data/ for course materials, and information regarding updates on each of the courses. Quite excitingly (for me at least), I am about to publish a whole series of new videos on Bayesian statistics on youtube. See here for information: https://ben-lambert.com/bayesian/ Accompanying this series, there will be a book: https://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1473916364/ref=pe_3140701_247401851_em_1p_0_ti
Views: 127119 Ben Lambert
Types of Sensors│ Different types of sensors│ Classification of sensor│
 
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Types of Sensors│ Different types of sensors│ Classification of sensor│ Hi everybody, today I will share about Types of Sensor. This video you learn following about Types of Sensor. Sensors are classified based on the nature of quantity they measure. Following are the types of sensors with few examples. 1. Acoustic and sound sensors. A sensor is used to measure sense an environment and converts this information into a digital or analogue data signal that can be interpreted by a computer or observer. An acoustic wave sensor is an electronic device that can measure sound levels. For Example, Microphone, Hydrophone. 2. Automotive sensors. Automotive sensor is one of the largest sensor companies in the world, with innovative sensor solutions that help customers transform concepts into smart, connected creations. For example, Speedometer, Radar gun, Speedometer, fuel ratio meter. 3. Chemical Sensors. A chemical sensor is a device that transforms chemical information composition, presence of a particular element or ion, concentration, chemical activity, partial pressure into an analytically useful signal. For example, Ph sensor, Sensors to detect presences of different gases or liquids. 4. Electric and Magnetic Sensors. Magnetic sensors differ from most other detectors in that they do not directly measure the physical property of interest For example, Galvanometer, Hall sensor measures flux density, Metal detector. 5. Environmental Sensors. Environmental sensors include barometric pressure sensors as well as integrated environmental sensors. These integrated sensors combine barometric air pressure, humidity, ambient air temperature sensing functions as well as air quality measuring. For example, Rain gauge, snow gauge, moisture sensor. 6. Optical Sensors. Optical sensors are electronic detectors that convert light, or a change in light, into an electronic signal. They are used in many industrial and consumer applications, For example, Photo diode, Photo transistor, Wave front sensor. 7. Mechanical Sensors. Mechanical sensors are used for positioning and limit switch tasks on machine tools and presses, flexible production centers, robots, assembly and conveying equipment, and in machine and plant construction. For decades, they have proven their worth as the traditional strongmen of automation. For example, Strain Gauge, Potential meter measures displacement. 8. Thermal and Temperature sensors. The thermal response of a temperature sensor is the speed at which it responds to a sudden change in temperature. Thermal response time is the time taken for the sensor to react to this change in temperature. For example, Calorimeter, Thermocouple, Thermostat, Gordon gauge. 9. Proximity and Presences sensors A proximity or presences sensor is the one which is able to detect the presences of nearby objects without any physical contact. They usually emit electromagnetic radiations and detect the changes in reflected signal if any. For example, Doppler radar, Motion detector. Thanks for watching my tutorial videos. More videos please subscribe my channel learning engineering. Content source by https://www.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl#q=sensors Picture source by https://www.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl#q=sensors
Views: 148033 Learning Engineering
What is an operational amplifier?
 
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The "operational amplifier" has two differential inputs and very high gain. Willy describes the symbol and properties of an op-amp. Op-amps are the backbone of analog circuit design.
Views: 414855 Khan Academy
EE102: Introduction to Signals & Systems, Lecture 8
 
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These lectures are from the EE102, the Stanford course on signals and systems, taught by Stephen Boyd in the spring quarter of 1999. More information is available at https://web.stanford.edu/~boyd/ee102/
Views: 408 Stanford
Compositional Properties of Statistical Procedures: An Information-Theoretic View
 
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Max Raginsky, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign https://simons.berkeley.edu/talks/max-raginsky-11-28-17 Optimization, Statistics and Uncertainty
Views: 602 Simons Institute
Even & Odd Functions
 
11:03
Download the Avanti Gurukul App from the google store now and get all the videos by India's top teachers on your phone. Click here to download: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=in.avanti.gurukul.learning.cbse.ncert.iit.video.test.doubt&referrer=utm_source%3DYouTube%26utm_medium%3DYouTube%2520Description%26utm_campaign%3DAll-YT-Description Class 12 Mathematics – Relations and Functions We have studied about sets, relations and functions in 11th class. Based on that information, we will learn about new functions, operations on functions and see how a function can be transformed. We’ll see functions like Sin (X) and Cos (X), which repeat themselves after few values of domain. In this chapter, we’ll learn 1. Relations, types of relations and functions. 2. Injective and Surjective functions. 3. Even and Odd functions. 4. Composite functions. 5. Invertible functions. 6. Binary operations and properties of binary operations. 7. Graphical transformations. 8. Periodic functions and their properties. 9. Number of solutions using graphs. AvantiEd- Learn more about us at http://www.avanti.in Like us on Facebook @ https://www.facebook.com/avantilearningcentres/?fref=ts Follow us on Twitter @ https://twitter.com/AvantiLC For more information, please visit www.avanti.in For more information, please visit www.avanti.in
Views: 24091 Avanti Gurukul
Science - Transmission of Sound
 
05:21
This Eureka.in Physics video shows how sound travels through the various states of matter, significance of Vibrations in the traveling of sound energy and the various type of sound waves. It also discusses about the measurement of sound and the concept of echo. You can also download our free app that covers all this and a glossary of key terms, and a quiz to test your knowledge on this topic here: http://bit.ly/14ttWKA Visit us at http://www.designmate.com For fun and educational updates, like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Designmate.Eureka Designmate Eureka is a unique channel that has Science & Mathematics videos from our Award winning K-12 product Eureka.in. These videos are available in multiple languages. If you would like to view more of our Videos or have a look at any specific topic do leave a comment.
Mod-01 Lec-13 Signals, operators
 
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Nonlinear Dynamical Systems by Prof. Harish K. Pillai and Prof. Madhu N.Belur,Department of Electrical Engineering,IIT Bombay.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 1499 nptelhrd
Lecture 14, Demonstration of Amplitude Modulation | MIT RES.6.007 Signals and Systems, Spring 2011
 
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Lecture 14, Demonstration of Amplitude Modulation Instructor: Alan V. Oppenheim View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/RES-6.007S11 License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 47260 MIT OpenCourseWare
Quantization | Hindi/ Urdu | Communication System by Raj Kumar Thenua
 
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For the conversion of analog continuous signal to digital signal we should follow below three processes- -Sampling -Quantization -Encoding This video will help you to understand the concept of Quantization, use of Quantization, working of Quantization on signals, types of Quantization. Communication is a process of transmission of information from source to destination or from transmitter to receiver. More Communication system videos: http://www.learnbywatch.com/learn/communication-systems/ Join online course:http://www.learnbywatch.in/course/communication-systems-by-raj-kumar-thenua-hindi/ Subscription links: YouTube: https://goo.gl/KtpRMV Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/learnywatch Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/learnbywatch We upload Communication system videos every day at 7:00 PM so don't forget to visit our channel every day at 7:00 PM.
The Nervous System, Part 3 - Synapses!: Crash Course A&P #10
 
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•••SUBBABLE MESSAGE••• TO: NerdFighteria FROM: Dave at DTXC.CO Cycling t-shirts at DTXC.CO. Don't give up the Road! DFTBA! *** Subbable Co-Sponsors: Logan Sanders https://www.facebook.com/perrylogans Dr. Boyev http://youtube.com/taichiknees *** You can directly support Crash Course at http://www.subbable.com/crashcourse Subscribe for as little as $0 to keep up with everything we're doing. Also, if you can afford to pay a little every month, it really helps us to continue producing great content. *** We continue our tour of the nervous system with a look at synapses and the crazy stuff cocaine does to your body. -- Table of Contents: Electrical Synapses Use Ion Currents Over Gap Junctions to Transmit Neurological Signals 2:56 Chemical Synapses Turn Electrical Signals Into Chemical Ones 4:01 Chemical Synapses Use Neurotransmitters 5:14 Effects of Cocaine In the Electrochemical System 7:44 -- CRASH COURSE KIDS! http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 2027223 CrashCourse
FFT Tutorial
 
06:30
Tony and Ian from Tektronix present a FFT Tutorial (Fast Fourier Transform) covering what is FFT, an explanation of the FFT function as well as different FFT applications. They explain how the FFT works with a FFT example and show an oscilloscope demo to demonstrate how helpful the FFT can be. What is FFT? In the video, "How to Use an Oscilloscope" (http://youtu.be/tzndcBJu-Ns), an oscilloscope was used to look at a single sine wave. But when you connect an oscilloscope to a live circuit, you rarely see something so simple. On real projects, you're usually looking at combinations of signals. The FFT lets you break down the data you've captured and see what it's made of. FFT Example One FFT example is when you want to understand your own signal. If you're designing a circuit board, and you attach your oscilloscope probe at the antenna, you're expecting the signal at the antenna to be at the frequency you designed it for. What you actually see is an extra signal. That extra signal is at a different frequency, and it's one you didn't expect to see. You'll notice you can't see it on the regular oscilloscope display before the FFT because it's 1/1000th the amplitude of the signal you're expecting. In the video FFT example, the cause is likely harmonic distortion since it's a multiple of the frequency we're expecting. If it were an exact multiple of some known clock board, then the likely cause would be cross-talk. How FFT Works The FFT helps you see what kinds of signals are present in your system. Specifically, it breaks down your complicated signal into separate sine waves. Any signal at all can be thought of as the sum of different sine waves (the Fourier Transform). The oscilloscope's FFT, or Fast Fourier Transform, is just one method of performing this operation. FFT Applications Most oscilloscopes have a FFT built into their math system these days. In the oscilloscope featured in the video, you just press Math and then turn on the FFT option. Then you can set various properties of the analysis, like the frequency range you want to look at. In the video example, you can see that same series of frequency-domain spikes stretching out. This is kind of a pared-down version of what you'd see on a spectrum analyzer. If you wanted something more like a real spectrum analyzer, you could use a mixed domain oscilloscope with a dedicated RF channel. The mixed domain oscilloscope in the video shows a FFT of the signal from a completely separate input. The idea is that you use the regular analog channels to look at the various signals on your board, and use the RF channel to see what's actually coming out of your antenna port. For more FFT Information go to: www.tek.com/fft-basics Also, keep an eye out for the next video in this series, covering a FFT example where the FFT function is used to measure musical signals in front of a live audience.
Views: 474409 Tektronix
Wave Period and Frequency
 
04:52
104 - Wave Period and Frequency In this video Paul Andersen explains how the period is the time between wave and the frequency is the number of waves per second. Period is measured in seconds and frequency is measured in Hertz. Wave period and wave frequency are reciprocals of one another. After watching this video you will be able to determine the period (and therefore the frequency) using a position vs. time graph of a wave. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: igjav, Ignacio javier. English: A Simple Red Lamp, Modern Look, July 27, 2011. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bombilla_roja_-_red_Edison_lamp.svg. ———. Italiano: Icona Di Una Lampadina Spenta Realizzata in Svg, June 2, 2012. File:Bombilla amarilla - yellow Edison lamp.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray_Edison_lamp.svg. “Wave on a String.” PhET. Accessed April 13, 2015. http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/wave-on-a-string.
Views: 155399 Bozeman Science
Physics - Waves -  Introduction
 
02:52
A Physics revision video introducing the concepts of waves.
Views: 441489 expertmathstutor

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