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2.8 EGF receptor and the Ras protein
 
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The EGF receptor functions as a tyrosine kinase (TK) EGF was found to have mitogenic effects when applied to a variety of epithelial cell types. EGF was able to bind to the surfaces of the cells whose growth it stimulated; other cells to which EGF was unable to bind were unresponsive to its mitogenic effects. An EGF receptor protein can specifically recognize EGF bind to it, and inform the cell interior The EGF receptor The cytoplasmic domain revealed a clear sequence similarity with the already-known sequence of the Src protein Signal activated EGF leads to the Src-like kinase in its cytoplasmic domain becoming activated to phosphorylate tyrosines on certain cytoplasmic proteins thereby causes a cell to proliferate. There are many receptor tyrosine kinases Subsequent sequencing efforts revealed overall sequence similarities among a variety of tyrosine kinases, many of which can function as oncoproteins. Truncated versions of the EGF receptor are found in a number of human tumor cell types. A variety of growth factor receptors that are configured much like the EGF receptor have been found in human tumors to be overexpressed or synthesized in a structurally altered form Autocrine signaling loops Some human cancers produce as many as three distinct growth factors Eg tumor growth factor-a, TGF-a stem cell factor; or SCF; insulin-like growth factor; or IGF At the same time express the receptors for these three ligands, thereby establishing three autocrine signaling loops simultaneously. In normal tissues, the proliferation of individual cells almost always depends on signals received from other cells Growth Factor activated receptors tyrosine kinase signal to ras “Ras” carry covalently attached lipid tails, composed of farnesyl, palmitoyl, and is anchored to cytoplasmic membranes the Ras molecule seemed to behave like a light switch that automatically turns itself off after a certain predetermined time. Ras switching Ras was found to bind a GDP molecule when in its quiescent, inactive state to jettison its bound GDP after receiving some stimulatory signal from upstream in a signaling cascade to acquire a GTP molecule in place of the recently evicted GDP to shift into an activated, signal-emitting configuration while binding this GTP to cleave this GTP after a short period by using its own intrinsic GTPase function Signalling to “Ras” Mitogenic signals, transduced in some way by tyrosine kinase receptors, activated a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Ras. Ras receives signals from upstream in a signalling cascade subsequently passes these signals on to a downstream targets How does “Ras” signal? Ras can operate as an oncoprotein: Typically mutations strike either the 12th or the 61st codon of the reading frame of the ras gene Rather than sending out short, carefully rationed pulses of growth-stimulating signals, the oncoprotein emits these signals for a long, indefinite period of time. Thereby flooding the cell with these signals Why do point mutations Activate oncogenes Large-scale alterations of the ras proto-oncogenes, such as deletions, are clearly not productive for cancer, they result in the elimination of Ras protein function The vast majority of point mutations striking ras protooncogenes yield mutant Ras proteins that have lost rather than gained the ability to emit growth-stimulatory signals. Only when the signal-emitting powers of Ras are left intact and its GTPase negative-feedback mechanism is inactivated does the Ras protein gain increased power to drive cell proliferation and transform the cell. Point mutations in the GTPase domain keep ras active
Views: 2353 Mark Temple
Ran GTPase, GAP, GEF
 
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The dynamic process between the cytosol and the nucleus of how Ran-GDP cycles with Ran-GTP
Views: 780 kaleidoscopicKT
Alfred Wittinghofer (MPI) Part 1: GTP-binding Proteins as Molecular Switches
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/biochemistry/g-protein/ When a growth factor binds to the plasma membrane of a quiescent cell, an intracellular signaling pathway is activated telling the cell to begin growing. A key molecule in this signaling pathway is the GTP-binding protein, or G-protein, Ras. Ras can act as an on-off switch telling the cell to grow or not. In its inactive form, Ras is bound to GDP while in its active form it is bound to GTP. This exchange of nucleotides is catalysed by guanine nucleotide-exchange-factors (GEFs). The return to the inactive state occurs through the GTPase reaction, which is accelerated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). In Part 1 of his talk, Dr. Wittinghofer explains how solving the three-dimensional structure of Ras, and other G-proteins, allowed him to understand the conserved mechanism by which G-proteins can act as switches. The structure also identified domains unique to each G-protein that provide the specificity for downstream signals.
Views: 30736 iBiology
Figure 18.17 Determining the guanine nucleotide exchange properties of EF-Ts
 
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This video describes an experiment that shows that EF-Ts promotes the release of GDP from EF-Tu. This is figure 18.17 from Molecular Biology 5th edition by Robert Weaver. It was made for MCDB 427, a molecular biology course at the University of Michigan.
Views: 32 MCDB 427
Medical vocabulary: What does Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors mean
 
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What does Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors mean in English?
Views: 29 botcaster inc. bot
Nuclear Import and Export
 
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Some Notes to go with the video (recommended to read after the video) Protein sorting between the nucleus and the cytosol is termed gated transport, with the gate being the nuclear pore complex, or NPC. The nucleus has a double membrane surrounding it called the nuclear envelope. The nucleus allows passive entry and exit of small molecules (smaller than 5000 daltons) but controls the passage of macromolecules like proteins, many of which are in the range of ~25,000 daltons, as well as DNA and RNA polymerases, many of which are around 100 – 200 THOUSAND daltons. Ribosomes, which are huge, actually get assembled in the nucleus and must then be exported – being 30 nm across, they can’t get back in from the cytosol. The nuclear pore complex contains channel nucleoporins with large unstructured regions creating a messy tangle. This is why macromolecules can’t freely come and go but small molecules can. In order to enter the nucleus, a macromolecule needs a nuclear localization signal, or NLS, and in order to exit, it needs a nuclear export signal, or NES. With active transport, molecules up to 39 nm across can be carried through the nuclear pore complex. Protein cargo destined to be transported into the nucleus has a Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) rich in positively-charged Lysine and Arginine amino acids, which allows it to bind to a Nuclear Import Receptor, also called an Importin. Different cargo proteins can have different nuclear localization signals and can therefore bind different importins. An adaptor is sometimes necessary to help the importin bind the cargo. The Importin binds to nucleoporins, at binding sites with many phenylalanine glycine repeats termed FG-repeats, in the Nuclear Pore Complex and is transported into the nucleus. The Nuclear Export Signal on macromolecules destined to leave the nucleus has a different amino acid sequence than the nuclear import sequence. The nuclear export receptor also binds to nucleoporins in the nuclear pore complex and is similar in structure to the nuclear import receptor. In fact, they are both encoded by a gene family called the karyopherins, or nuclear transport receptors. Now, let’s take a look at how nuclear import works A macromolecule has a nuclear localization signal and is hence destined to be transported into the nucleus. It binds to an importin and the bound importin binds to nucleoporins of the nuclear pore complex. The cargo-bearing importin is shuttled across. At the other end of the nuclear pore complex, there is a Ran GTP. Ran GTP binds the importin, which has a sort of stacked alpha helix motif forming a spring-like structure. The spring-like structure has a conformational change and the cargo protein is released into the nuclear lumen, which is its destination. After this exchange, the importin bound to Ran-GTP is transported back into the cytoplasm. Ran-GTP is hydrolyzed to Ran-GDP and inorganic phosphate and dissociates from the importin. The importin can now be reused to transfer the next cargo. For simplicity’s sake, I omitted a few details in the previous explanation. There are a few more players involved in nuclear import (and also export). Firstly, Ran is inefficient at GTP hydrolysis. And so Ran Binding Protein (RBP) – not shown here – and Ran GAP must work together to hydrolyze GTP and release the nuclear import receptor. An easy way to remember Ran-GAP is to think of it as… LITERALLY… creating a GAP where there used to be a phosphate group. Secondly, we have Nuclear Transport Factor 2, or NTF2 for short, which transports Ran-GDP into the nucleus. Inside the nucleus, we have Ran-GEF (Guanine Exchange Factor). Ran-GEF is bound to chromatin, and catalyzes Ran to exchange GDP for GTP. Upon completion, NTF2 returns to the cytoplasm. Here’s an brief overview of import. Feel free to pause the video and read. Nuclear Export is very similar to Import so I’m going to cover it quickly. A nuclear export receptor binds to nucleoporins and is transported into the nuclear lumen. There it binds with Ran-GTP, which then promotes binding with its nuclear export signal-bearing cargo. The receptor again binds to nucleoporins and the whole thing is transported to the cytosol. Ran-GAP helps with hydrolysis of Ran-GTP to Ran GDP and Ran Binding Protein helps detach Ran from the receptor. The cargo dissociates and the nuclear export receptor is free. Now, the receptor returns to the nucleus without any enzymes helping it.
Views: 56526 Neural Academy
Medical vocabulary: What does ras Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors mean
 
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What does ras Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors mean in English?
G Protein linked 2nd Messengers, G protein coupled receptors, GPCRs
 
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Understand the G-protein receptors like never before!!! Thanks for watching! I love making these for you! I'm constantly trying to make (and find) better videos for you to study from **it’s not easy! **You can help by suggesting any good videos you've seen in the comments below! Good luck in school!! I'm sure that you've talked about the G protein-linked receptors in school, however, you might not have called them G protein-linked receptors. They go by other names like G protein-linked second messengers or G protein-coupled receptors, that's a pretty common one. Even conversationally, a lot of people just say the G proteins. I'm gonna break down those words a little bit later and tell you what each part of it means and why we use those names to refer to these proteins. But first off, what does the G stand for? Why is it G protein? Well, the G stands for guanine. These are guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, meaning that they bind guanine nucleotides. Like for example guanosine triphosphate or its slightly shorter little brother, guanosine diphosphate. These receptors are extremely important physiologically. We use them all over our body and they do all kinds of different functions. These receptors are only found in eukaryotes and are the target of about 40% of all the drugs we use in medicine today. I just told you that they're very diverse in function however, there's two main signal transduction pathways that you got to know, you have to know them for your boards and that is the cyclic AMP-dependent pathway and the phosphatidylinositol signal pathway, okay? I'll talk about those more in a little bit. First, let's jump into the structure and function of these things, it's pretty cool. I told you that I was going to breakdown the names so that you can understand the concepts a little bit better. First off, let's get started with what does the word "G proteins" mean? Well, the G proteins are a component of this receptor system. The G proteins are heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins made of three subunits, hence, heterotrimeric. First there's the alpha subunit, then the beta subunit and then the gamma subunit. And you should also notice from my illustration here that the beta and gamma subunits are more tightly linked together than the two are to the alpha subunit. Actually the beta and the gamma stay connected where the alpha subunit separates itself in normal function. These G proteins live on the intracellular side of the cell membrane and are attached to or connected to the cell membrane itself by lipid anchors. The next thing for us to talk about is to define what are the G protein-coupled receptors? Well, these are receptors that live in the membrane and in fact, they pass through the membrane seven times which is an important number, you might be tested on it. All right, so these G protein-coupled receptors interact with the G proteins and cause oftentimes a confirmational change so that the alpha subunit of the G protein can accept different nucleotides. What about the term G protein-linked second messengers? Well, that's another component of this system which are cellular target-proteins or enzymes that perform some kind of function when they interact with the G proteins that we've already talked about. Now they are very diverse but as I said in the beginning, there's two main pathways or two main targets that cause a pathway that you have to understand. And those two are the cyclic AMP-dependent pathway and the phosphatidylinositol signal pathway, which I abbreviate here as IP3/DAG pathway. Right now you're probably thinking, Dr. Joel, I have no idea what you're talking about. Don't worry, I will show you the whole thing working and we'll talk about the parts as we go, and I'm pretty sure that it will make sense after we go through it. First, we have to set the stage a little bit. The G proteins or more specifically, the alpha subunit of the G proteins is bound in its resting state to guanosine diphosphate or GDP. In this state, the receptor is just sitting and waiting. On the extracellular side of the cell membrane, a ligand comes and it binds with the G protein-coupled receptor causing a confirmational change. The confirmational change allows the alpha subunit to bind with guanosine triphosphate and release the guanosine diphosphate. Now, the G proteins are active and as active G proteins, they do a couple of things. First off, the alpha subunit separates itself from the beta gamma complex. This kind of frees it up a little bit so it's free to move around. It's still attached to the membrane by a lipid anchor but the lipid anchor can kind of swim through the membranes. It's able to move to the target. It moves the target and it causes the target protein or enzyme to change in some way. Either the G protein interaction causes the target to speed up what it's doing or slow down what it's doing or stop what it's doing. It does something to the target protein.
Views: 47031 Med Immersion
Molecular Cloning of Rho Family Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors FGD1-5
 
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Student Achievement Day Presentation at Bemidji State University
Views: 122 bawani129
Medical vocabulary: What does ral Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor mean
 
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What does ral Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor mean in English?
Views: 131 botcaster inc. bot
02 Oncogenes
 
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A presentation on Cancer Genetics discussing Oncogenes and the Ras signalling protein as an example. Cellular Oncogenes The cell genome is rich source of the genes that drive human cancer The cellular genome has tens of thousands of genes. A large catalog of cellular cancer-causing genes has been assembled. These are called oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes Consider the H-ras gene The oncogene that had been cloned from human bladder carcinoma cells caused transformation of NIH 3T3 cells, while its normal proto-oncogene counterpart (i.e., the normal Hras gene) lacked this ability. A 350-bp segments from the proto-oncogene and oncogene were subjected to DNA sequence analysis. The critical difference was extraordinarily subtle—a single base substitution in which a G (guanosine) residue in the proto-oncogene was replaced by a T (thymidine) in the oncogene. This single base-pair replacement - a point mutation - appeared to be all that was required to convert the normal gene into a potent oncogene The H-ras gene This was the first time that a mutation was discovered in a gene that contributed to the growth of a human cancer. This genetic change arose as a somatic mutation. The importance of Ras proteins in tumors In the 1980s, it was demonstrated that close to 30% of all solid tumors in humans show a mutation in the Ras gene. Certain positions in the Ras protein are particularly sensitive to oncogenic mutations. Replacement of Gly12 in the Ras protein with any of the other natural amino acids (except Pro) leads to an increase in the tumor-transforming potential of Ras protein. RAS a switch protein Structure and Biochemical Properties of Ras Protein The Ras protein is a GTPase the GTP-bound form represents the active, switched-on state the GDP-bound form is the inactive, switched-off state The transition between the active and inactive forms occurs in a unidirectional cycle The Ras activation cycle Ras On… GEF Guanine Exchange Factors Sos protein Is a GEF that provokes nucleotide exchange by G proteins (guanine nucleotide-binding), such as Ras. Ras Off… GAP GTPase Activating Protein GTPase-activating proteins (GAP), increase the rate of GTP hydrolysis of the Ras protein up to 105-fold. reducing the lifetime of the active GTP state. Due to this property, they function as negative regulators of the Ras protein. Cancer Genetics in brief series… by Mark Temple
Views: 3895 Mark Temple
Medical vocabulary: What does Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors mean
 
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What does Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors mean in English?
Views: 108 botcaster inc. bot
Medical vocabulary: What does ras Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors mean
 
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What does ras Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors mean in English?
Views: 11 botcaster inc. bot
4.3 How is ras involved in signaling
 
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How is ras involved in the signaling Ras (oncogene) was known to be important in cancer Ras was known to be a molecular switch But was ras involved in the signaling from receptor to nucleus If so how? Ras as a molecular switch involves a conformational change Eye development in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster The gene sevenless - in its absence, the seventh cell in each ommatidium failed to form After cloning and sequencing the sevenless gene was found to encode a tyrosine kinase receptor (a bit like the EGF receptor) Eye development in the fruit fly other mutations mimicked sevenless Could this be a linear signal-transduction cascade e.g. son of sevenless (sos) Sos protein related to yeast proteins that provoking nucleotide exchange by G proteins (guanine nucleotide-binding), such as Ras. Other proteins make the pathway Shc (pronounced "shick”) Grb2 (pronounced "grab two”) We know have... GF-- TKR-- Grb2-- Sos-- Ras But... what is the role of Tyrosine Phosphorylation? Was the phosphorylation of these receptors on tyrosine residues critical to their ability to signal or was it a distraction? If this phosphorylation was important how could it activate the complex signaling circuitry downstream?
Views: 815 Mark Temple
[Wikipedia] RhoGEF domain
 
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RhoGEF domain is a structural domain of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho/Rac/Cdc42-like GTPases. It is also called "Dbl-homologous" (DH) domain. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RhoGEF_domain Please support this channel and help me upload more videos. Become one of my Patreons at https://www.patreon.com/user?u=3823907
Views: 13 WikiTubia
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RABGEF1 "RAB GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR (GEF) 1"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RABGEF1 "RAB GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR (GEF) 1" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RIC8A "RIC8 GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR A"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RIC8A "RIC8 GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR A" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1
Medical vocabulary: What does Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors mean
 
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What does Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors mean in English?
Views: 20 botcaster inc. bot
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of TRIO "TRIO RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of TRIO "TRIO RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1 Gene Music Studio - A channel to taste (visually & musically) gene information (particularly protein sequences).
Views: 30 Gene Music Studio
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF12 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR (GEF) 12"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF12 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR (GEF) 12" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1 Gene Music Studio - A channel to taste (visually & musically) gene information (particularly protein sequences).
Views: 18 Gene Music Studio
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF5 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 5"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF5 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 5" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1 Gene Music Studio - A channel to taste (visually & musically) gene information (particularly protein sequences).
Medical vocabulary: What does Guanine Nucleotide-Releasing Factor 2 mean
 
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What does Guanine Nucleotide-Releasing Factor 2 mean in English?
Gene Music Using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF38 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 38"
 
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Gene Music Using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF38 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 38"
Views: 18 Gene Music Studio
Conformational Change from active (GTP bound) to inactive (GDP bound) state of H-Ras protein.
 
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Watch in 480p for best quality. Ras are a group of small GTPases which are activated by binding of GTP( Guanosine tri phosphate) a process which is facilated by GEF (Guanine nucleotide exchange factor) protein. The Ras which then activates its cellular target for conveying the signal downstream then hydrolyses the bound GTP ( process stimulated by another protein GAP (GTPase Activating Protein) to GDP which the dissociates and the protein returns to its inactive conformation.
Views: 5204 Perunamuusi
Medical vocabulary: What does rho-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors mean
 
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What does rho-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors mean in English?
Medical vocabulary: What does rho Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor beta mean
 
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What does rho Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor beta mean in English?
Ras activator, Son of sevenless
 
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Ras is a proto-oncogene and is a member of small-molecular weight GTP binding protein family. This movie shows the mechanism of Ras activation by Sos (son of sevenless), a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for Ras. The Cdc25-HD domain of Sos inserts into switch regions of Ras and excludes the binding of a guanine nucleotide and a magnesium ion, so that a GTP can be recruited subsequently. These structures also show a sophisticated mechanism for positive feedback regulation. A second molecule of Ras in its activated GTP-bound form interacts with the Cdc25-HD domain and its upstream REM domain to arrange the Sos domains for GTP exchange of the first Ras. In addition, the second Ras binding also inhibits the interaction with the auto-inhibitory DH-PH domains.
Views: 3528 StructureForBiology
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RAPGEF5 "RAP GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 5"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RAPGEF5 "RAP GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 5" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RAPGEF6 "RAP GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 6"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RAPGEF6 "RAP GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 6" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1 Gene Music Studio - A channel to taste (visually & musically) gene information (particularly protein sequences).
Views: 11 Gene Music Studio
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RAPGEFL1 "RAP GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR LIKE 1"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RAPGEFL1 "RAP GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR LIKE 1"
Views: 22 Gene Music Studio
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of SOS1 "SOS RAS/RAC GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 1"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of SOS1 "SOS RAS/RAC GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 1" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1 Gene Music Studio - A channel to taste (visually & musically) gene information (particularly protein sequences).
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of VAV1 "VAV GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 1"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of VAV1 "VAV GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 1" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1 Gene Music Studio - A channel to taste (visually & musically) gene information (particularly protein sequences).
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF1 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 1"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF1 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 1" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF3 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 3"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF3 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 3" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RAPGEF3 "RAP GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 3"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RAPGEF3 "RAP GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 3" In Gene Music Studio, everyone can get a taste (visually & musically) of gene information (particularly protein sequences). Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of VAV3 "VAV 3 GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of VAV3 "VAV 3 GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR" Welcome to Gene Music Studio. Hope you can have a taste (visually & musically) of gene information (particularly protein sequences) in this channel. Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF39 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 39"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF39 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 39"
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF33 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 33"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF33 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 33" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RAPGEF4 "RAP GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 4"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RAPGEF4 "RAP GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 4" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1 Gene Music Studio - A channel to taste (visually & musically) gene information (particularly protein sequences).
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF6 "RAC/CDC42 GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 6"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF6 "RAC/CDC42 GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 6" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of DEF6 "DEF6 GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of DEF6 "DEF6 GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RAPGEF2 "RAP GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 2"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RAPGEF2 "RAP GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 2" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1 Gene Music Studio - A channel to taste (visually & musically) gene information (particularly protein sequences).
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of SERGEF "SECRETION REGULATING GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTO"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of SERGEF "SECRETION REGULATING GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTO"
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF18 "RHO/RAC GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 18"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF18 "RHO/RAC GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 18" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1 Gene Music Studio - A channel to taste (visually & musically) gene information (particularly protein sequences).
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF2 "RHO/RAC GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 2"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF2 "RHO/RAC GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 2" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1 Gene Music Studio - A channel to taste (visually & musically) gene information (particularly protein sequences).
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF7 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 7"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF7 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 7" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RAPGEF1 "RAP GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 1"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RAPGEF1 "RAP GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 1" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1 Gene Music Studio - A channel to taste (visually & musically) gene information (particularly protein sequences).
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RIC8B "RIC8 GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR B"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of RIC8B "RIC8 GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR B" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF26 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 26"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF26 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 26" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1
Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF19 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 19"
 
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Gene Music using Protein Sequence of ARHGEF19 "RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR 19" Subscribe ➜ https://www.youtube.com/c/GeneMusicStudio?sub_confirmation=1

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