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Chemistry: Ionic Bonds vs Covalent Bonds (Which is STRONGER?)
 
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Chemistry: Ionic Bonds vs Covalent Bonds (which is stronger?) Ionic Bonds and Covalent bonds are both considered STRONG intramolecular forces. But do you know which is stronger? You'd think this was a straightforward question. But there's more to it! Each of these bonds has a range of strengths. In this video, we'll discuss how the strength of Ionic Bonds and Covalent bonds are measured so you can compare two chemical bonds. You can click on the links below to jump to sections in the lesson: 0:25 Definitions of ionic and covalent bonds 1:45 Measuring the strength of ionic bonds (lattice energy) 3:08 Some typical lattice energies of ionic bonds 3:50 Measuring the strength of covalent bonds (bond enthalpy) 4:19 Some typical bond enthalpies of covalent bonds Here are our more in-depth videos about the individual bonds. Ionic Bonds: http://bit.ly/1UWsJRL Covalent Bonds: http://bit.ly/1HYZmow3 Metallic Bonds: http://bit.ly/1UoASiZ Intermolecular Forces: http://bit.ly/2xAnoMt ///////////////////////// Our Periodic Table app is FREE in the Google Play store! http://goo.gl/yg9mAF Don't miss our other chemistry videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQw9G... Please Subscribe so you'll hear about our newest videos! http://bit.ly/1ixuu9W If you found this video helpful, please give it a "thumbs up" and share it with your friends! ///////////////////////// To support more videos from Socratica, visit Socratica Patreon https://www.patreon.com/socratica http://bit.ly/29gJAyg Socratica Paypal https://www.paypal.me/socratica We also accept Bitcoin! :) Our address is: 1EttYyGwJmpy9bLY2UcmEqMJuBfaZ1HdG9 ///////////////////////// We recommend the following books: Brown and LeMay Chemistry: The Central Science 13th edition: http://amzn.to/2n5SXtB 14th edition: http://amzn.to/2mHk79f McGraw/Hill Chemistry by Chang & Goldsby http://amzn.to/2mO2khf Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood by Oliver Sacks http://amzn.to/2nlaJp0 Napoleon's Buttons: How 17 Molecules Changed History http://amzn.to/2lJZzO3 ///////////////////////// Written and Produced by Kimberly Hatch Harrison About our instructor: Kimberly Hatch Harrison received degrees in Biology and English Literature from Caltech before working in pharmaceuticals research, developing drugs for autoimmune disorders. She then continued her studies in Molecular Biology (focusing on Immunology and Neurobiology) at Princeton University, where she began teaching as a graduate student. Her success in teaching convinced her to leave the glamorous world of biology research and turn to teaching full-time. Kimberly taught AP Biology and Chemistry at an exclusive prep school for eight years. She is now the head writer and producer of Socratica Studios. Creative Commons Picture Credits: Butter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Western-pack-butter.jpg Author: Steve Karg, aka Skarg sodium chloride 3D lattice http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:NaC... Author: Raj6
Views: 45958 Socratica
The CHEMICAL BONDS Song  - NOW WITH CLOSED CAPTION SO YOU CAN SING ALONG!  Mr. Edmonds  -
 
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This song is about the formation of the two types of chemical bonds: IONIC BONDS and COVALENT BONDS. The tune is to "Dancing Queen" by Abba (the song from their album, Arrival). After looking for several song melodies, this one fit the words the best. Many thanks to my current and former science students for their encouragement! Document with words is in "Docs" section for dsecms on Teachertube, OR BELOW: The Chemical Bonds Song -- to the tune of "Dancing Queen" by Abba from the album Arrival. Words by Doug Edmonds. Oooh yeah, Ionic bonds ... covalent bonds ... both of them chemical bonds. How are they made? What's the dif-ference? Watch you'll see! First we'll start with ionic bonds, A metal and nonmetal are involved. The metal gives over electrons, the nonmetal ... it receives. The atoms become IONS! Metals might have 1,2 or 3 Electrons for the nonmetal to receive It all depends on what's needed, to make the number 8 For the nonmetals' outer shell. AND IF IT HAPPENS FOR THEM ... They both become IONS ...... CHARGED ATOMS .... They become IONS! The metal's positive, the nonmetal's negative, They become IONS, oh yeah. The metal's plus, the nonmetal minus, and opposites they do attract. So what you get, when they come together, is an IONIC BOND. So what about those covalent bonds? It's not about loss and gain of electrons. Valence electrons they are shared, to complete the outer shells Of the nonmetals set to bond. IT'S WHEN NONMETALS JOIN ... to make covalent bonds With shared electrons ,,,, they're covalent bonds. Not a transfer, instead they share valence electrons, oh yeah! Ionic bonds ... covalent bonds ... both of them chemical bonds. How are they made? What's the dif-ference? Play the song again ! Ionic bonds, covalent bonds ..... both chemical bonds!
Views: 215363 dsecms
Online Chemistry Course: Chemical Bonding
 
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This online chemistry course video explains chemical bonding. Watch how two hydrogen atoms collide and stick together to make a molecule. See how they collide and chemically bond with oxygen to form water, with nitrogen to form ammonia, and with carbon to form methane. The chemical formula of these substances are explained, and the connection between the microscopic molecules that make up a substance and its macroscopic properties is shown. Also, the difference between an element and a compound is explained. Subscribe to watch more online chemistry courses & science videos: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiX8pAYWBppIbtUZTfGnRJw?sub_confirmation=1 About Atomic School: Atomic School supports the teaching of Atomic Theory to primary school & science students. We provide lesson plans, hands-on classroom resources, demonstration equipment, quizzes and a Teacher's Manual to primary school teachers. Animated videos that clearly explain the scientific ideas supports learning by both teachers and students. As a teacher, you don't have to look anywhere else to implement this program. Our work has been verified by science education researchers at the University of Southern Queensland, Dr Jenny Donovan and Dr Carole Haeusler, who confirm that primary students are capable of learning much more complex scientific concepts than previously thought, and crucially, that they love it. Students run to class! The program has been trialed in Australian schools as well as schools in the Philippines, Iran and India. It is conducted as holiday workshops at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the Queensland Museum as well as the World Science Festival. It has attracted wide media interest, including TV, radio and print, and the research data has been presented at prestigious American Education Research Association and Australian Science Education Research Association conferences. Atomic Theory underlies all the other sciences- genetics, electronics, nanotechnology, engineering and astronomy- so an early understanding will set them up for a more successful learning sequence for all their science subjects, and support their mastery of mathematics as well. We also have extension programs that cover Biology, Physics and Astronomy to an equal depth. About Ian Stuart (Email: [email protected]): The founder of Atomic School, Ian Stuart, taught Chemistry and Physics for 25 years at senior levels before he realized that his 8-year old son, Tom, could understand Atomic Theory at a much deeper level than he expected. After visiting Tom's class at school, he discovered that his peers could also grasp the abstract scientific concepts, as well as apply it usefully to the real world. Ian then developed a program to teach the advanced concepts of high school Chemistry, Physics and Biology to students 10 years younger than they normally would. He found that this engaged their interest in modern science early, and sustained it through to high school and beyond. It also sets them up for future success in their academic and career paths. Ian has a Bachelor's Degree in Chemistry from the University of Queensland and a Master's degree in Electrochemistry from the University of Melbourne. Connect with Atomic School on social media: http://facebook.com/AtomicSchool http://twitter.com/AtomicSchools http://instagram.com/AtomicSchools Video transcript:
Views: 31291 AtomicSchool
Atomic Hook-Ups - Types of Chemical Bonds: Crash Course Chemistry #22
 
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Atoms are a lot like us - we call their relationships "bonds," and there are many different types. Each kind of atomic relationship requires a different type of energy, but they all do best when they settle into the lowest stress situation possible. The nature of the bond between atoms is related to the distance between them and, like people, it also depends on how positive or negative they are. Unlike with human relationships, we can analyze exactly what makes chemical relationships work, and that's what this episode is all about. If you are paying attention, you will learn that chemical bonds form in order to minimize the energy difference between two atoms or ions; that those chemical bonds may be covalent if atoms share electrons, and that covalent bonds can share those electrons evenly or unevenly; that bonds can also be ionic if the electrons are transferred instead of shared: and how to calculate the energy transferred in an ionic bond using Coulomb's Law. -- Table of Contents Bonds Minimize Energy 01:38 Covalent Bonds 03:18 Ionic Bonds 05:37 Coulomb's Law 05:51 -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 1784131 CrashCourse
It's a Chemical Bond - "Nothin' On You" Remix
 
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Another project for AP Chemistry. Cast and Credits John Haskell: First chorus, second singing verse, video producer Stephen Haskell: Second & third chorus, first singing verse, audio producer Eric Larsen: Both rapping verses, lyrics writer Lyrics [CHORUS] - John Ionic bonds, and covalent bonds, Forming and breaking, new molecules making, It's a chemical bond, babehhhhh, A chemical bond, baby, Electron pairs, are they transferred or shared? How do you name them, is polarity there? It's a chemical bond, baby, A chemical bond, baby. [RAP VERSE 1] - Eric Okay first off we'll start with ionic. They deal with ions, isn't that ironic, Cations, anions, polyatomic, Make a strong bond, like a bomb that's atomic, Typically a metal and a nonmetal bond, To get an octet so that they become strong, They get together and transfer electrons, They share them equally, neither one is conned. [SINGING VERSE 1] -Stephen What makes the bonds stronger? And last longer? And have a higher melting point you think? A correct inference, would be the difference, In electronegativity. To name it put the cation first you see, And on the anion put I D E Unless it's polyatomic then let it be Be...be...be... [CHORUS] -Stephen [RAP VERSE 2] -Eric Im'a talk about covalent bonds now Two nonmetals bond, you wanna know how? Atoms come together, cause they want an octet They share electrons to get eight in their set. Covalent differs from ionic greatly: They have a smaller difference in e-negativity, Percent ionic character is less obviously, What, about polarity? [SINGING VERSE 2] -John Non-polar, beats polar, When it comes to sharing equally. But polar, has a higher, Melting point than non-polar's be. Naming them is easy thankfully, Just put a prefix on the atom please, Rappin' bout bonds, yeah I'm a G. G...G...G [CHORUS] -- Stephen [BRIDGE] Now metallic bonds, are the bond type number three. Electrons aren't stagnant, they move around in a sea. It's senior year with Standish, and I'm lucky with a "C," Can't wait to get out of here, it's AP Chemistry. [CHORUS]
Views: 126686 Stephen Haskell
Ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds | Chemical bonds | Chemistry | Khan Academy
 
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Introduction to ionic, covalent, polar covalent and metallic bonds. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-bonds/types-chemical-bonds/v/electronegativity-trends?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/periodic-table/periodic-table-trends-bonding/v/metallic-nature-trends?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCyEot66LrwWFEMONvrIBh3A?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 2337251 Khan Academy
Ionic Bonding Introduction
 
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To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry This video is an introduction to ionic bonding, which is one type of chemical bonding. Ionic bonds hold together metal and nonmetal atoms. In ionic bonding, electrons are transferred from a metal atom to a nonmetal atom, creating ions. These ions have opposite charge, so they stick together. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC
Views: 1073894 Tyler DeWitt
Chemical Bonding
 
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Chemical Bonding Though the periodic table has only 118 or so elements, there are obviously more substances in nature than 118 pure elements. This is because atoms can react with one another to form new substances called compounds (see our Chemical Reactions module). Formed when two or more atoms chemically bond together, the resulting compound is unique both chemically and physically from its parent atoms. Let's look at an example. The element sodium is a silver-colored metal that reacts so violently with water that flames are produced when sodium gets wet. The element chlorine is a greenish-colored gas that is so poisonous that it was used as a weapon in World War I. When chemically bonded together, these two dangerous substances form the compound sodium chloride, a compound so safe that we eat it every day - common table salt! In ionic bonding, electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another. In the process of either losing or gaining negatively charged electrons, the reacting atoms form ions. The oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces, which are the basis of the ionic bond. Notice that when sodium loses its one valence electron it gets smaller in size, while chlorine grows larger when it gains an additional valence electron. This is typical of the relative sizes of ions to atoms. Positive ions tend to be smaller than their parent atoms while negative ions tend to be larger than their parent. After the reaction takes place, the charged Na+ and Cl- ions are held together by electrostatic forces, thus forming an ionic bond. Ionic compounds share many features in common: •Ionic bonds form between metals and nonmetals. •In naming simple ionic compounds, the metal is always first, the nonmetal second (e.g., sodium chloride). •Ionic compounds dissolve easily in water and other polar solvents. •In solution, ionic compounds easily conduct electricity. •Ionic compounds tend to form crystalline solids with high melting temperatures. Checkout for more information: https://chemistry.tutorvista.com/physical-chemistry/chemical-bonding.html Follow us at: https://www.facebook.com/tutorvista https://twitter.com/TutorVista
Views: 13377 TutorVista
Chemical Bonding - Ionic vs. Covalent Bonds
 
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This two minute animation describes the Octet Rule and explains the difference between ionic and covalent bonds. Find more free tutorials, videos and readings for the science classroom at ricochetscience.com
Views: 268054 RicochetScience
Polar & Non-Polar Molecules: Crash Course Chemistry #23
 
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*** PLEASE WATCH WITH ANNOTATIONS ON! SOME INACCURACIES IN GRAPHICS ARE NOTED AND CORRECTED IN ANNOTATIONS. THANKS! *** Molecules come in infinite varieties, so in order to help the complicated chemical world make a little more sense, we classify and categorize them. One of the most important of those classifications is whether a molecule is polar or non-polar, which describes a kind of symmetry - not just of the molecule, but of the charge. In this edition of Crash Course Chemistry, Hank comes out for Team Polar, and describes why these molecules are so interesting to him. You'll learn that molecules need to have both charge asymmetry and geometric asymmetry to be polar, and that charge asymmetry is caused by a difference in electronegativities. You'll also learn how to notate a dipole moment (or charge separation) of a molecule, the physical mechanism behind like dissolves like, and why water is so dang good at fostering life on Earth. -- Table of Contents Charge Assymetry & Geometric Asymmetry 01:33 Difference in Electronegatives 01:49 Hank is Team Polar 00:33 Dipole Moment 03:49 Charge Separation of a Molecule 04:12 Like Dissolves Like 04:41 Water is Awesome 05:10 -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 2480432 CrashCourse
Oxygen, Nitrogen & Carbon and Covalent Chemical Bonds
 
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This chemistry tutorial video explains how oxygen, nitrogen & carbon make covalent chemical bonds to school & science students . The video shows how the protons and electron shells, and especially the number of electrons in the outer shells determine how many bonds oxygen, nitrogen and carbon can make. Four important molecules, water H2O, ammonia NH3, and methane CH4 are discussed. Subscribe to watch more online chemistry courses & science videos: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiX8pAYWBppIbtUZTfGnRJw?sub_confirmation=1 About Atomic School: Atomic School supports the teaching of Atomic Theory to primary school & science students . We provide lesson plans, hands-on classroom resources, demonstration equipment, quizzes and a Teacher's Manual to primary school teachers. Animated videos that clearly explain the scientific ideas supports learning by both teachers and students. As a teacher, you don't have to look anywhere else to implement this program. Our work has been verified by science education researchers at the University of Southern Queensland, Dr Jenny Donovan and Dr Carole Haeusler, who confirm that primary students are capable of learning much more complex scientific concepts than previously thought, and crucially, that they love it. Students run to class! The program has been trialed in Australian schools as well as schools in the Philippines, Iran and India. It is conducted as holiday workshops at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the Queensland Museum as well as the World Science Festival. It has attracted wide media interest, including TV, radio and print, and the research data has been presented at prestigious American Education Research Association and Australian Science Education Research Association conferences. Atomic Theory underlies all the other sciences- genetics, electronics, nanotechnology, engineering and astronomy- so an early understanding will set them up for a more successful learning sequence for all their science subjects, and support their mastery of mathematics as well. We also have extension programs that cover Biology, Physics and Astronomy to an equal depth. About Ian Stuart (Email: [email protected]): The founder of Atomic School, Ian Stuart, taught Chemistry and Physics for 25 years at senior levels before he realized that his 8-year old son, Tom, could understand Atomic Theory at a much deeper level than he expected. After visiting Tom's class at school, he discovered that his peers could also grasp the abstract scientific concepts, as well as apply it usefully to the real world. Ian then developed a program to teach the advanced concepts of high school Chemistry, Physics and Biology to students 10 years younger than they normally would. He found that this engaged their interest in modern science early, and sustained it through to high school and beyond. It also sets them up for future success in their academic and career paths. Ian has a Bachelor's Degree in Chemistry from the University of Queensland and a Master's degree in Electrochemistry from the University of Melbourne. Connect with Atomic School on social media: http://facebook.com/AtomicSchool http://twitter.com/AtomicSchools http://instagram.com/AtomicSchools Video transcript:
Views: 148970 AtomicSchool
Chemical Bonds Lesson Two
 
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Description- Covalent Bonding
Chemical Bonding part 4 Basics of Covalent Bonding
 
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In this tutorial, the basics of covalent bonding are introduced. Specifically the concept of a molecule is discussed along with an introduction to the diatomic molecules. Coordinate covalent bonding is also introduced in terms of drawing out hydronium and ammonium ions and identifying the difference between a covalent bond and a coordinate covalent bond. The importance of this differentiation will become apparent when acid base reactions are discussed in the future. A basic discussion of polyatomic ions, the presences of both covalent and coordinate covalent bonds and the formation of compounds that contain both ionic and covalent bonds is considered. Finally, molecules involving double and triple bonds are introduced and drawn examples are provided
Views: 34 Sarah English
Chemical Bonding Introduction: Hydrogen Molecule, Covalent Bond & Noble Gases
 
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Chemical bonding introduction video shows how covalent bond means 2 hydrogen atoms can stick together to form a hydrogen molecule, H2. The video also explains why helium cannot form bonds and hence is called a noble gas. Subscribe to watch more online chemistry courses & science videos: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiX8pAYWBppIbtUZTfGnRJw?sub_confirmation=1 About Atomic School: Atomic School supports the teaching of Atomic Theory to primary school & science students . We provide lesson plans, hands-on classroom resources, demonstration equipment, quizzes and a Teacher's Manual to primary school teachers. Animated videos that clearly explain the scientific ideas supports learning by both teachers and students. As a teacher, you don't have to look anywhere else to implement this program. Our work has been verified by science education researchers at the University of Southern Queensland, Dr Jenny Donovan and Dr Carole Haeusler, who confirm that primary students are capable of learning much more complex scientific concepts than previously thought, and crucially, that they love it. Students run to class! The program has been trialed in Australian schools as well as schools in the Philippines, Iran and India. It is conducted as holiday workshops at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the Queensland Museum as well as the World Science Festival. It has attracted wide media interest, including TV, radio and print, and the research data has been presented at prestigious American Education Research Association and Australian Science Education Research Association conferences. Atomic Theory underlies all the other sciences- genetics, electronics, nanotechnology, engineering and astronomy- so an early understanding will set them up for a more successful learning sequence for all their science subjects, and support their mastery of mathematics as well. We also have extension programs that cover Biology, Physics and Astronomy to an equal depth. About Ian Stuart (Email: [email protected]): The founder of Atomic School, Ian Stuart, taught Chemistry and Physics for 25 years at senior levels before he realized that his 8-year old son, Tom, could understand Atomic Theory at a much deeper level than he expected. After visiting Tom's class at school, he discovered that his peers could also grasp the abstract scientific concepts, as well as apply it usefully to the real world. Ian then developed a program to teach the advanced concepts of high school Chemistry, Physics and Biology to students 10 years younger than they normally would. He found that this engaged their interest in modern science early, and sustained it through to high school and beyond. It also sets them up for future success in their academic and career paths. Ian has a Bachelor's Degree in Chemistry from the University of Queensland and a Master's degree in Electrochemistry from the University of Melbourne. Connect with Atomic School on social media: http://facebook.com/AtomicSchool http://twitter.com/AtomicSchools http://instagram.com/AtomicSchools Video transcript: Let's do a thought experiment. Imagine a box filled with hydrogen atoms. Like billiard balls on a pool table, atoms actually move, and they do it in straight lines until they hit something … like another hydrogen atom. Oh! See that? They stuck together. They’re not separate hydrogen atoms any more, but a pair of hydrogen atoms moving together. There goes another pair. 4.1 When atoms join up like this, scientists call it a molecule. And they call the join between them a chemical bond. Here comes another hydrogen atom crashing into the hydrogen molecule. But this time it doesn’t stick. Instead it just bounces off. Hydrogen atoms bond once, and that’s it. They’re just like that. Pretty quickly all the hydrogen atoms will collide and pair off into molecules. They will keep hitting each other, but they'll just bounce off. Scientists like to have a shorthand way of writing this molecule thingi. Here’s one way to show it, with the hydrogen symbols joined by a stick to show the chemical bond between the atoms. Another way is to write H2, with the little 2 after the H and a bit lower. A number written this way is called a subscript. What do you think the 2 stands for? It counts the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule. Easy, heh! So when we have a balloon filled with hydrogen gas, it really contains trillions of trillions of H2 molecules. Let's do another thought experiment. We'll go back to our box filled with hydrogen atoms, but this time put an oxygen atom in there too. When a hydrogen atom crashes into an oxygen atom, they stick together. But wait, when another hydrogen atom hits, it also sticks to the oxygen. What about a third hydrogen atom? No, that’s if for oxygen. It can only make 2 bonds and then it’s done.
Views: 140241 AtomicSchool
Chemistry: What is a Covalent Bond? (Polar and Nonpolar)
 
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Chemistry: What is a Covalent Bond? (Polar and Nonpolar) Covalent bonds are one of the 3 main types of intramolecular forces, along with ionic bonds and metallic bonds. Covalent bonds are the result of atoms sharing their valence electrons. Covalent bonds can be polar or nonpolar, depending on the electronegativies of the atoms involved in the bond. We show five examples of covalent bonds using Lewis dot structure notation: HF, CO2, H2, H2O and CCl4. You can click on the links below to jump to sections in the lesson: 0:28 Definition of a Covalent Bond 0:42 Example 1: HF (single covalent bond) 1:23 Example 2: CO2 (double covalent bond) 2:09 Nonpolar covalent bonds 2:20 Example 3: H2 2:43 Polar covalent bonds 2:48 Example 4: H2O 3:58 Example 5: CCl4 4:39 Pauling Bond Polarity Scale (Linus Pauling) 5:15 Do covalent bonds break apart in water? (electrolytes) Click to watch our video about ionic bonds: http://bit.ly/1UWsJRL Click to see our video about metallic bonds: http://bit.ly/1UoASiZ And here's our video comparing ionic and covalent bonds: http://bit.ly/1Nz4Kpy Intermolecular Forces: http://bit.ly/2xAnoMt ///////////////////////// Essential Chemistry Lessons help all year long: What is a Mole? Avogadro's Number: http://bit.ly/2laJh0S Molar Mass: http://bit.ly/2pNfg8L Scientific Notation: http://bit.ly/2cv6yTw Significant Figures: http://bit.ly/2b1g3aJ Unit Conversion 1: http://bit.ly/1YGOQgw Unit Conversion 2: http://bit.ly/1RGbwZ1 Periodic Table: http://bit.ly/2gmSWfe ///////////////////////// Our Periodic Table app is FREE in the Google Play store! http://goo.gl/yg9mAF Don't miss our other chemistry videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQw9G... Please Subscribe so you'll hear about our newest videos! http://bit.ly/1ixuu9W If you found this video helpful, please give it a "thumbs up" and share it with your friends! ///////////////////////// To support more videos from Socratica, visit Socratica Patreon https://www.patreon.com/socratica http://bit.ly/29gJAyg Socratica Paypal https://www.paypal.me/socratica We also accept Bitcoin! :) Our address is: 1EttYyGwJmpy9bLY2UcmEqMJuBfaZ1HdG9 ///////////////////////// We recommend the following books: Brown and LeMay Chemistry: The Central Science 13th edition: http://amzn.to/2n5SXtB 14th edition: http://amzn.to/2mHk79f McGraw/Hill Chemistry by Chang & Goldsby http://amzn.to/2mO2khf Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood by Oliver Sacks http://amzn.to/2nlaJp0 Napoleon's Buttons: How 17 Molecules Changed History http://amzn.to/2lJZzO3 ///////////////////////// Written and Produced by Kimberly Hatch Harrison About our instructor: Kimberly Hatch Harrison received degrees in Biology and English Literature from Caltech before working in pharmaceuticals research, developing drugs for autoimmune disorders. She then continued her studies in Molecular Biology (focusing on Immunology and Neurobiology) at Princeton University, where she began teaching as a graduate student. Her success in teaching convinced her to leave the glamorous world of biology research and turn to teaching full-time. Kimberly taught AP Biology and Chemistry at an exclusive prep school for eight years. She is now the head writer and producer of Socratica Studios.
Views: 183821 Socratica
Chemical Bonds
 
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Chemical Bonding A chemical bond results from strong electrostatic interactions between two atoms. The nature of the atoms determines the kind of bond. COVALENT bonds result from a strong interaction between NEUTRAL atoms Each atom donates an electron resulting in a pair of electrons that are SHARED between the two atoms For example, consider a hydrogen molecule, H2.When the two hydrogen, H, atoms are far apart from each other they do not feel any interaction. As they come closer each “feels” the presence of the other. The electron on each H atom occupies a volume that covers both H atoms and a COVALENT bond is formed. Once the bond has been formed, the two electrons are shared by BOTH H atoms. An electron density plot for the H2 molecule shows that the shared electrons occupy a volume equally distributed over BOTH H atoms. Potential energy (kJ/mol) Separation (Å) It is also possible that, as two atoms come closer, one electron is transferred to the other atom. The atom that gives up an electron acquires a +1 charge and the other atom, which accepts the electron acquires a –1 charge. The two atoms are attracted to each other through Coulombic interactions – opposite charges attract – resulting in an IONIC bond. Animation Potential energy (kJ/mol) Separation (Å) What factors determine if an atom forms a covalent or ionic bond with another atom? The number of electrons in an atom, particularly the number of the electrons furthest away from the nucleus determines the atom’s reactivity and hence its tendency to form covalent or ionic bonds. These outermost electrons are the one’s that are more likely to “feel” the presence of other atoms and hence the one’s involved in bonding i.e. in reactions. Chemistry of an element depends almost entirely on the number of electrons, and hence its atomic number. The periodic table By the late 1800’s it was realized that elements could be grouped by similar chemical properties and that the chemical and physical properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers – PERIODIC LAW. The arrangements of the elements in order of increasing atomic number, with elements having similar properties placed in a vertical column, is called the PERIODIC TABLE. Columns are called GROUPS (FAMILIES) and rows are called PERIODS. Elements in a group have similar chemical and physical properties. The total number of electrons within a group is different, increasing in number down a group However, the number of electrons furthest away from the nucleus, called the OUTER or VALENCE electrons is the same for all elements in a group. Groups are referred to by names, which often derive from their properties I – Alkali metals; II – Alkaline Earth metals VII – Halogens; VIII – Noble gases The elements in the middle block are called TRANSITION ELEMENTS Elements in the A group are diverse; metals and non-metals, solids and gases at room temperature. The transition elements are all metals, and are solids at room temp, except for Hg. Among the transition elements are two sets of 14 elements - the LANTHANIDES and the ACTINIDES Physical and Chemical properties such as melting points, thermal and electrical conductivity, atomic size, vary systematically across the periodic table. Elements within a column have similar properties Atomic radius (Å) A “zig-zag” division of the table divides metals from non-metals. Elements to the left of the zig-zag line are metals (except for hydrogen, which is unique) and to the right are non-metals. Elements along the border have intermediate properties and are called metalloids.
Views: 153 SliderBase
Intermolecular Forces - Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole, Ion-Dipole, London Dispersion Interactions
 
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This chemistry video tutorial focuses on intermolecular forces such hydrogen bonding, ion-ion interactions, dipole dipole, ion dipole, london dispersion forces and van deer waal forces. It contains plenty of examples and practice problems to help you understand the most important concepts related to this material. General Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BV-uX6wXQgyqZXvRd0tUUV0&index=3 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ Here is a list of topics: 1. Ion - Ion dipole interactions of KF and CaO 2. Electrostatic Force and Lattice Energy- The effect of charge and ionic radii or size 3. How To Determine Which Ionic Compound has a Higher Melting Point - NaF vs KCl 4. Ion-Dipole Interactions - NaCl and H2O 5. Definition of a Dipole - Polar Molecules & Charge Separation 6. Dipole-Dipole Interactions of Polar Molecules - Partial Charge Electrostatic Attractions of CO 7. Hydrogen Bonding between Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine 8. Intermolecular Forces vs Intramolecular Forces 9. Hydrogen Bonding vs Polar & Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 10. London Dispersion Forces & Van Der Waals Forces 11. Permanent Dipoles and Temporary Induced Dipoles - Distribution of electrons in electron cloud 12. Difference Between Atoms and Ions - Cations vs Anions - Number of Electrons and Protons 13. The relationship between Polarizability and Dispersion Forces 14. How To Determine the Strongest Intermolecular Forces In Compounds Such as MgO, KCl, H2O, CH4, CO2, SO2, HF, CH3OH, LiCl, CH2O, CO, and I2 15. The relationship between Boiling Point and Vapor Pressure 16. Straight Chained vs Branched Alkanes - Boiling Point and Intermolecular Forces - Surface Area 17. Ranking Boiling Point In Order of Increasing Strength for I2, Br2, F2, and Cl2 18. Polar and Nonpolar Organic Compounds - Polarity and Water Solubility 19. Ranking Boiling In Decreasing Order For HF, HCl, HBr, and HI 20. The effect of Molar Mass and Number of electrons on the Overall Intermolecular Force / LDF
What Is The Definition Of A Chemical Bond?
 
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This attraction 9 apr 2016 bonds definition, as used in chemistry, chemical engineering, and physics, along with examples of types a coordinate bond is covalent between two atoms where one the provides both electrons that form 19 2017 this definition term molecules exhibit bonding 17 jun 2002 every ionic made up at least cation anion. Chemistry definition of coordinate bond thoughtco. Any of several forces, especially the ionic bond, covalent and metallic by which atoms or ions are bound in a molecule crystal. See more describe various concepts developed for chemical bonds. It is caused atoms have their electrons distributed in layers or 'shells', from closer to the nucleus adding up outwards. Chemical bond wikipedia. Atoms tend to arrange themselves in the most stable patterns possible, which means that they have a tendency complete 30 jan 2014 how define chemical bond first place has long been point of contention, and some quirky new types are now forcing bonding chemistry topic by longman dictionary contemporary english what you need know about words, phrases set covers basics three ionic, covalent metallic. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between atoms with opposite charges, or through sharing electrons as in covalent bonds chemical bondany several forces, especially ionic bond, and metallic by which ions are bound a molecule crystal bonding any interactions that account for association into molecules, ions, crystals, other stable species make up definition, something binds, fastens, confines, holds together. Learn more a chemical bonding is an attraction between atoms or molecules and allows the formation of compounds, which contain two. Chemical bond definition of chemical by the free dictionarydefinition and examples define at dictionary meaning in cambridge english. What is the definition of a chemical bond? Quora. Chemical bond atoms stick together because of chemical attraction, meaning that various types are attracted to each other and come in a. What is chemical bond? does bond mean dictionary definition bonds. Bond formed when one or define covalent bond a chemical between atoms by the sharing of electrons Chemical definition free dictionarydefinition and examples at dictionary meaning in cambridge english. It also includes brief details ionic bond (definition). Each shell can contain a precise number of electrons 26 jul 2016. Expand the concept of what is meaning valence in this early stage? A number chemical bond meaning, definition, an electrical force that holds atoms together to form a molecule ( smallest unit. The polarity of a covalent bond is defined by any difference in janet rae dupree, pat dupree. What do you mean by chemical bonding? The bigger. Bonds definition and examples in chemistry thoughtco. Covalent bond definition and example (chemistry) thoughtco4 types of chemical bonds dummiesfeature from the chemistry topic quizletdefinition covalent by merriam webster. Chemical bond wikipedia a chemical is lasting attraction between atoms that enables the formation of compounds.
Views: 261 new sparky
Covalent Bond and Its Types- Explanation and Examples |Types of Chemical Bonds |
 
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The concept of Covalent bond and its types are explained in detail and in comprehensive style along with examples both of inorganic and organic compounds.... You can understand about chemical bonds and its types... This lecture is continuation of previous lecture on ionic bond... If u want to study ionic bond and its Formation the link is given below : https://youtu.be/ONyXn4y5gfE
Types of chemical bonding
 
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Useful for CBSE, ICSE, NCERT & International Students Grade : 9 Subject :Chemistry Lesson : Chemical Bonding Topic: Types of Chemical Bonding Chemical bond formed between two atoms due to transfer of electron(s) from one atom to the other. atom is called "Ionic bond" or "electrovalent bond". A covalent bond involves the sharing of electrons between two atoms. The pair of shared electrons form A new orbit that extends around the nuclei of both atoms, producing a molecule A covalent bond is formed by two atoms sharing a pair of electrons. The atoms are held together because the electron pair is attracted by both of the nuclei. Visit www.oztern.com to find personalized test preparation solutions for Pre Medical - AIPMT, AIIMS, JIPMER, State, Pre Engineering - IIT JEE, JEE MAIN, BITSAT, State and Foundations - Class 6 to 10.
Views: 344 CBSE
Class 11/I PUC Chemistry lecture 04 Chemical bonding & Molecular Structure  - Types of Overlapping
 
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Like us on facebook : https://www.facebook.com/bicspuc Visit us at www.bicpuc.com Follow us on twitter.com/bicpuc This Video deals in detail with the types of overlapping of atomic orbitals during the formation of Covalent bond with examples for each case for in-depth understanding of the concept. Covalent bond is formed by the overlapping of half-filled valence shell (outermost shell) atomic orbital. This overlapping during the formation of covalent bond can happen in two different ways: a) Head on overlapping or Axial overlapping b) Lateral overlapping or Sideways overlapping Head-on overlapping of the atomic orbitals will always result in the formation of sigma -covalent bond while, Lateral overlapping will result in the formation of Pi- covalent bond. No doubt, both are covalent bonds i.e they are formed by the mutual sharing of valence electrons from the half -filled valence atomic orbtials between the two participating atoms, but the strength of sigma & pi covalent bonds are not the same. Strength of Bond:Sigma covalent bond is stronger than pi covalent bond. Reason:This is because sigma covalent bond is formed along nuclear axis & hence will experience greater effective nuclear charge whereas pi covalent bond is formed by the sideways over-lapping of atomic orbitals. i.e., the overlapping happens away from the nuclear axis- above & below .Hence these bonding electrons does not experience greater force of attraction from the nucleus. This video lesson of I PUC Chemistry based on formation of molecular orbitals is discussed by Prof. Shanthidatta
Electronegativity and bonding | Chemical bonds | Chemistry | Khan Academy
 
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Electronegativity differences in bonding using Pauling scale. Using differences in electronegativity to classify bonds as covalent, polar covalent, or ionic. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-bonds/types-chemical-bonds/v/metallic-nature-trends?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-bonds/types-chemical-bonds/v/electronegativity-trends?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCyEot66LrwWFEMONvrIBh3A?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Ionic vs. Molecular
 
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To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry How can you tell the difference between compounds that are ionic and molecular (also known as covalent)? It has to do with the elements that make them up: ionic compounds are made of metals and nonmetals, and molecular (or covalent) compounds are made of nonmetals. We'll learn how they bond differently: in covalent compounds, the atoms share electrons, and in ion compounds, atoms steal electrons and then opposite charges attract. Ionic and molecular (covalent) compounds also look different at the microscopic level: covalent and molecular compounds exist in molecules, while ionic compounds are organized in lattice structures.
Views: 733908 Tyler DeWitt
Lewis Diagrams Made Easy: How to Draw Lewis Dot Structures
 
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For a limited time get 10% off all my Teespring Merch. Use the promo code: KETZ10 Please consider supporting me on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/ketzbook This is a Videoscribe tutorial on how to draw Lewis diagrams for elements and simple molecules. Lewis diagrams (aka Lewis structures, Lewis dot structures, Lewis dot diagrams) are useful because they use simple drawings to show how atoms share valence electrons in molecules, polyatomic ions, and other covalent structures. This is my first tutorial in the series. Please also see the second video in my Lewis diagram series: https://youtu.be/qwqXAlvNxsU For simple molecules, follow these 5 steps: 1) count all the valence electrons 2) put the singular atom in the middle 3) draw in single bonds 4) put remaining electrons in as lone pairs 5) give every atom an octet or duet by turning lone pairs into double or triple bonds as needed My goal is to make chemistry easier ;) http://ketzbook.com
Views: 1012895 ketzbook
Chemical Bonding Covalent Bonds and Ionic Bonds
 
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Chemical Bonding Covalent Bonds and Ionic Bonds. Mr. Causey discusses ionic bonds, covalent bonds and chemical bonding. You need to know the periodic table, valence electrons, lewis dot symbols, oxidation numbers and electronegativity in order to determine chemicals bonds. http://www.yourCHEMcoach.com Subscribe for more chemistry videos: http://bit.ly/1jeutVl Basic Rules - 0:56 Valence Electrons - 1:10 Electronegativity - 1:18 Chemical Bonding - 1:46 Ionic Bond - 2:58 Covalent Bond - 4:00 Compound Characteristics - 6:26 Name that Bond - 7:50 Thinking Time - 8:57 Share this Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KjoQHqgzda8 Resources: Polyatomic Ion Cheat Sheet: http://bit.ly/14e2pbw Periodic Table: http://bit.ly/ptable9 Related Videos: Related Videos: Naming Ionic and Covalent Compounds: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9XUsOLaz3zY Metallic Bonding: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3uNETGK_sb4 Molecular Geometry: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-pq2wum1uDc Intermolecular Forces: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wYZg1j7o2x4 Contact Me: [email protected] Follow Me: http://www.twitter.com/#!/mrcausey http://pinterest.com/mistercausey/ http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=814523544
Views: 287316 Mr. Causey
Bonding Models and Lewis Structures: Crash Course Chemistry #24
 
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Models are great, except they're also usually inaccurate. In this episode of Crash Course Chemistry, Hank discusses why we need models in the world and how we can learn from them... even when they're almost completely wrong. Plus, Lewis Structures! -- Table of Contents Models :06 Linus Pauling & The Bonding Model 9:16 Lewis Dot Structures 4:27 Ionic Bonds 5:30 Covalent Bonds 6:10 Double Bonds 7:17 Triple Bonds 8:14 -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 1528788 CrashCourse
Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals, Sigma and Pi Bonds, Sp Sp2 Sp3, Organic Chemistry, Bonding
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial explains the hybridization of atomic orbitals. It discusses how to determine the number of sigma and pi bonds in a molecule as well determining if a carbon is sp, sp2, or sp3 hybridized. This video contains plenty of examples and practice problems. Valence Bond Theory: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4UP4LhDhoUE Molecular Orbital Theory: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P21OjJ9lDcs Orbitals, Atomic Energy Levels, & Sublevels Explained! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4sLXUr2HWIs How To Receive Tutoring and Get Paid At The Same Time: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J8A8JTpOWCQ Epic Music Mix: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qeljbZhx9bY Excel For Beginners: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nK-uNYuvcag Here is a list of topics: 1. Atomic Orbitals - S, px, py, and pz orbitals 2. Hybrid Orbitals vs Unhybridized Orbitals 3. Sp, Sp2, and SP3 hybridized Orbitals 4. S character vs P Character 5. Bond Strength of Single Bonds, Double Bonds, and Triple Bonds 6. Bond Length of Triple Bonds and Single Bonds 7. Sigma Bonds vs Pi Bonds 8. More Examples on Structure and Bonding 9. Electron Configuration of Carbon and Valence Bond Theory 10. Electron Configuration of Hybrid Orbitals - sp sp2 and sp3 11. dsp3 and d2sp3 hybridization 12. Hybridization of Lone pairs - Localized vs Delocalized Electrons 13. Hybridization of Lone pairs in resonance structures 14. Sigma and Pi Bonds In Single, Double, and Triple Bonds 15. Sigma Bonds and Overlap of Atomic Orbitals 16. Mixing Atomic Orbitals to form Hybrid Orbitals 17. Unhybridized P orbitals and pi bonding 18. Structure of Ethane With Hybrid Orbitals 19 Ethene or Ethylene Hybridization and Atomic Orbitals 20. Molecular Orbital Theory 21. Structure & Bonding of Ethyne or Acetylene - sigma and pi bonds 22. valence bond theory
Chemical bond
 
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A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. The bond is caused by the electrostatic force of attraction between opposite charges, either between electrons and nuclei, or as the result of a dipole attraction. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" such as covalent or ionic bonds and "weak bonds" such as dipole–dipole interactions, the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding. Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond. Due to the matter wave nature of electrons and their smaller mass, they must occupy a much larger amount of volume compared with the nuclei, and this volume occupied by the electrons keeps the atomic nuclei relatively far apart, as compared with the size of the nuclei themselves. This phenomenon limits the distance between nuclei and atoms in a bond. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 104 Audiopedia
CHEMICAL BONDING - Cause of Chemical Bonding - Class 11th & IIT-JEE - 01/26
 
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Get Full Course Delivered at your Home: Call-9826023696 Visit our Website: https://www.m-learning.in Mail us at :[email protected] For Online Course: Download our app from Google Play Store and App Store Join Classroom Course at Indore. The formation of a chemical bond between two atoms implies that the system consisting of these two atoms at stable internuclear distance is energetically more stable than the two isolated atoms. A general study on the reactivity of different element revealed that noble gases have little tendency to combine with other elements. This leads to the fact that the noble gases have stable outer configuration ns2 np6 (octet configuration) . All other atoms combine to achieve the stable octet configuration either by mutual sharing of electrons (covalent bond or coordinate bond) or by complete transfer of electron(s) from one atom to other (ionic bond). COVALENT BOND Mutual sharing of electrons leads to the formation of covalent bond. A single bond is formed when a single pair of electrons is shared between two atoms, a double bond results when two pairs of electrons are shared and so on. After sharing, each atom has stable octe configuration. This type of bond is formed between two electronegative atoms. Examples . Cl2, O2, N2, CO2 and so on. Organic compounds also involve covalent bonds between atoms. The sharing of electrons may be shown by Lewis Dot structures. The octet rule holds, with several exceptions in the first two eight-membered periods of the periodic table. A few exceptions are BeCl2 , AlF3, PF5 and SF6 . Polar Covalent Bond Because of the difference between the electronegativities of two atoms, the electron pair lies nearer to atom of higher electronegativity. Consequently, this atom acquires a partial negative charge and the other atom (with lesser electronegativity) acquires an equal positive charge. Such a distortion of charges gives rise to a polar covalent bond. The above polarization of bonded electrons is expressed quantitatively with a physical quantity, known as dipole moment,
Views: 43388 M Learning India
Chemical Bonding | Introduction | Cause of Chemical Bonding |Sanjay Belli | Part 1 I by Its Showtime
 
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In This Video We are Explaining about .. Chemical bonds are the connections between atoms in a molecule. These bonds include both strong intramolecular interactions, such as covalent and ionic bonds. They are related to weaker intermolecular forces, such as dipole-dipole interactions, the London dispersion forces, and hydrogen bonding. The weaker forces will be discussed in a later concept. About : Its Showtime is a YouTube Channel, where you will find technological videos, Education Classes, Apps, Short-films etc, New Video is Posted Everyday :) Thanks For Watching Its Showtime itshowtime
Views: 1245 Its Showtime
√√ Covalent Molecular Substance | Bonding and Classification | Chemical Earth | Chemistry
 
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https://www.iitutor.com Both covalent molecular substances and covalent network substances are held together by covalent bonds, that is atoms sharing pairs of electrons. In most cases the shared pair or pairs of electrons are provided by both of the atoms, but in some bonds, called coordinate covalent bonds or dative covalent bonds, the pair of electrons is provided by only one of the two atoms. An example of this is carbon monoxide. The third pair of shared electrons is supplied by the O atom. Numerous commonly occurring pure substances on earth such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and water consist of molecules and are known as covalent molecular substances. They have the following properties in common. 1 They have low melting and boiling points; many are liquids or gases at room temperature. 2 They are non-conductors of electricity in both the solid and liquid states. 3 They form solids which are generally quite soft and often have a waxy appearance. Experimental evidence indicates that all covalent molecular substances exist as groups of atoms called molecules. Substances like iodine, ammonia and naphthalene are composed of molecules, which are solids under normal conditions. The effect of heat energy Generally, the forces between the molecules are fairly weak, as indicated by the low melting points of these substances. The melting and boiling points of covalent molecular substances are much lower than those of covalent network, ionic and metallic substances. In iodine, for example, the low melting point of 114 indicates that the forces between the molecules are quite weak. However, a large amount of energy is required to separate iodine molecules into individual atoms. For the process to occur to a significant extent, a temperature of is required. This indicated that there must be strong bonding forces, in this case covalent bonds, between the iodine atoms within iodine molecules. A similar argument can be applied to the difference in the melting the boiling points of water and the temperature required to actually separate the individual atoms in water molecules. Water melts at and boils at which indicate that the forces between water molecules are relatively weak. Gaseous water has to be heated to very much higher temperatures before the covalent bonds within the water molecules are broken. Most covalent molecular substances are described as soft, such as iodine and candle was. This property is also a result of the weak forces that exist between molecules in these substances. A number of common non-metallic elements exist as covalent molecular crystals below their melting points. Examples include iodine (I2), sulfur (S8) and white phosphorus (P4). Oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2) form covalent molecular crystals when cooled well below room temperature. Covalent molecular crystals are non-conductors of electricity in the solid and liquid states. This property is readily explained by the fact that the molecules are uncharged and that there are no mobile (delocalised) electrons or ions present. All bonding electrons are tightly locked up in covalent bonds. Even polar molecules are electrically neutral overall. Whilst they rotate the orient them-selves in an electric field they do not carry a current. At any given temperature the vapour pressure of covalent molecular substances varies considerably. This can readily be explained by the large variation in intermolecular forces between the molecules. Those molecular substances with dispersion forces between their molecules have a higher vapour pressure than those with hydrogen bonding between the molecules (for the same temperature and molecular weight). Tetrachloromethane is a non-polar covalent molecular liquid. The forces between its molecules are totally dispersion forces. Its vapour pressure of 15 kPa reflects its large molecular weight. Water, with a molecular weigh of 18 (about nine times less than ) has a much lower vapour pressure than expected for its low molecular weight, because of extensive hydrogen bonding between the molecules.
Views: 22 iitutor.com
Regents Chemistry Chemical Bonding Review Part 4
 
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This session reviews the concepts of metallic bonding, network solids, coordinate covalent bonds, polyatomic ions and how to identify compounds that have both ionic and covalent bonds
Views: 233 Sarah English
General Chemistry 1A. Lecture 08. Chemical Bonds.
 
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UCI Chem 1A General Chemistry (Winter 2013) Lec 08. General Chemistry -- Chemical Bonds View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_1a_general_chemistry.html Instructor: Amanda Brindley, Ph.D. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info. More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu Description: Chem 1A is the first quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: atomic structure; general properties of the elements; covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding; intermolecular forces; mass relationships. General Chemistry (Chem 1A) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/collections/open_chemistry.html This video is part of a 23-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "General Chemistry" taught at UC Irvine by Amanda Brindley, Ph.D. Recorded March 14, 2013. Index of Topics: 0:01:57 Types of Bonds 0:04:30 Energy of Ionic Bond Formation 0:10:46 Lewis Dot Symbol 0:11:58 Ionic Bonds 0:14:50 Covalent Bonding: Molecular Compounds 0:16:04 General Lewis Structure Guidelines 0:19:11 Non-Octet Breaking Examples 0:32:48 Formal Charges 0:48:37 Breaking the Octet Rule Required attribution: Brindley, Amanda General Chemistry 1A (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_1a_general_chemistry.html. [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/deed.en_US)
Views: 31155 UCI Open
Dual function Line for both Dipping and Hot roller (chemical bond and thermo bond)
 
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Dual function line which can make both chemical bond and thermo bond Dipping and Hot roller www.wjnonwoven.com
Views: 1473 max ju
Chemistry - Chemical Bonding: Applying the VSEPR Model
 
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This is the 5th lesson in the series, "Chemical Bonding." This lesson describes the effects of having one or more lone pairs on the molecular shape demonstrates how to apply the VSEPR to determine the shape of molecules which have both lone pairs and bond pairs. Source: Mindset Network
Views: 2430 EducationCommonsRW
Writing Ionic Formulas: Introduction
 
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Here's how to write formulas for binary ionic compounds. We'll see how you have to balance the charges of the two ions so they cancel each other out.
Views: 2262392 Tyler DeWitt
Atomic Bonding Song
 
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Starring: Christie Wykes as Chlorine, Carbon, and Sodium Director of Photography: Sean McCallum Gravity (John Mayer Cover) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u7KpH9_I2Dw I'm Atoms (Jason Mraz Cover) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DBjZz0iQrzI Electricity (Jet Cover) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cY-kiddvAg0 Experiments A Cappella http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lRbI_vPyOnc
Views: 493258 Veritasium
sp hybridization (video)  | Chemical bonds | UPADHYAY CHEMISTRY
 
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In ethyne molecule, both the carbon atoms undergo sp-hybridisation having two unhybridised orbital i.e., 2py and 2pz. One sp hybrid orbital of one carbon atom overlaps axially with sp hybrid orbital of the other carbon atom to form C–C sigma bond, while the other hybridised orbital of each carbon atom overlaps axially with the half filled s orbital of hydrogen atoms forming s bonds. Each of the two unhybridised p orbitals of both the carbon atoms overlaps sidewise to form two p bonds between the carbon atoms. So the triple bond between the two carbon atoms is made up of one sigma and two pi bonds
Views: 413 Narender Upadhyay
Chemical Bonds: Covalent vs. Ionic
 
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Mr. Andersen shows you how to determine if a bond is nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, or ionc. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 629014 Bozeman Science
Electrovalent bond from chemical bonding
 
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Both objective and subjective based questions.
Chemical Bonding for +1, +2, JEE, NEET and other competitive exams
 
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The video is about chemical bonding. Shortcut methods to find steric number of molecules and its effect on properties of molecules. It is for both basic level and competition level students. For further queries related to the concepts, please contact us through the below given link. https://panaceatutor.com/contact-us For more videos on other topics stay connected to PanaceaTutor YouTube Channel. For more information, visit https://www.panaceatutor.com or contact 8054407407, 9888405906.
Views: 811 PanaceaTutor
Chemical Bonding | Ionic Bond |Bond Formation| Conditions and Examples | part 5 | Its Showtime
 
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In This Video We are Explaining about... Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds. It is one of the main bonds along with Covalent bond and Metallic bonding. Ions are atoms that have gained one or more electrons (known as anions, which are negatively charged) and atoms that have lost one or more electrons (known as cations, which are positively charged). This transfer of electrons is known as electrovalence in contrast to covalence. In the simplest case, the cation is a metal atom and the anion is a nonmetal atom, but these ions can be of a more complex nature, e.g. molecular ions like NH+ 4 or SO2−4. In simpler words, an ionic bond is the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal in order to obtain a full valence shell for both atoms. Chemical Bonding | Introduction | Cause of Chemical Bonding |Sanjay Belli | Part 1 I https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=81PiY... Chemical Bonding | Lewis Dot Structure | Cause of Chemical Bonding | Part 2 I https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=93T9z... Chemical Bonding | Electronic Theory of Valency by lewis and kossel | Part 3 I https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Ud-37yjqVM&t=45s Chemical Bonding | Electronic Theory of Valency by lewis and kossel | Part 4 I https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zA8A9daNBKM&t=70s Please Subscribe, like ,share and comment Follow us on: Google+--- https://plus.google.com/u/0/111132752480302671330 Facebook--- https://www.facebook.com/Entertainmentalongwitheducation/ twitter -- https://twitter.com/Itsshow05041156 About Us: Its Showtime is a YouTube Channel, where you will find technological videos, Education Classes, Apps,Short-films etc, New Videos is Posted Everyday :)
Views: 335 Its Showtime
Overview of Chemical Bonding
 
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When is it ionic bonding, covalent, or both kinds?
Views: 18 Aya Salah
Representing Chemical Bonding (Lesson Two)
 
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Ionic and covalent bonding examples
Views: 152 HGTCChem
Electron Configuration 1:  Introduction to Electron Configuration
 
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Craig Beals explains Electron Configuration in Chemistry examining the placement of electrons around the atoms and how this leads to bonding, both ionic and covalent. Electron configuration also determines the type of light (electromagnetic radiation) given off by an "excited" atom. Included in video: -Electron cloud shapes -Electron Configuration -Valence electrons and shells -Aufbau Principle -Pauli Exclusion Principle -Hund's Rule
Views: 10 Beals School
CHEMICAL BOND IIT JAM CHEMISTRY
 
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CHEMICAL BOND IIT JAM CHEMISTRY VISIT OUR WEBSITE https://www.souravsirclasses.com/ FOR COMPLETE LECTURES / STUDY MATERIALS /NOTES /GUIDENCE / PAST YEAR SOLVED +SAMPLE PAPAERS /TRICKS /MCQ / SHORT CUT/ VIDEO LECTURES /LIVE + ONLINE CLASSES GIVE US A CALL / WHAST APP AT 9836793076 Also find us at…. BLOGSPOT http://souravdas3366.blogspot.com/ SLIDES ON COURSES https://www.slideshare.net/Souravdas31 TWITTER https://twitter.com/souravdas3366 FACEBOOK https://www.facebook.com/Sourav-Sirs LINKED IN https://www.linkedin.com/in/sourav-da GOOGLE PLUS https://plus.google.com/+souravdassou A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms. This attraction may be seen as the result of different behaviors of the outermost or valence electrons of atoms. These behaviors merge into each other seamlessly in various circumstances, so that there is no clear line to be drawn between them. However it remains useful and customary to differentiate between different types of bond, which result in different properties of condensed matter. In the simplest view of a covalent bond, one or more electrons (often a pair of electrons) are drawn into the space between the two atomic nuclei. Energy is released by bond formation. This is not as a reduction in potential energy, because the attraction of the two electrons to the two protons is offset by the electron-electron and proton-proton repulsions. Instead, the release of energy (and hence stability of the bond) arises from the reduction in kinetic energy due to the electrons being in a more spatially distributed (i.e. longer de Broglie wavelength) orbital compared with each electron being confined closer to its respective nucleus. These bonds exist between two particular identifiable atoms and have a direction in space, allowing them to be shown as single connecting lines between atoms in drawings, or modeled as sticks between spheres in models. In a polar covalent bond, one or more electrons are unequally shared between two nuclei. Covalent bonds often result in the formation of small collections of better-connected atoms called molecules, which in solids and liquids are bound to other molecules by forces that are often much weaker than the covalent bonds that hold the molecules internally together. Such weak intermolecular bonds give organic molecular substances, such as waxes and oils, their soft bulk character, and their low melting points (in liquids, molecules must cease most structured or oriented contact with each other). When covalent bonds link long chains of atoms in large molecules, however (as in polymers such as nylon), or when covalent bonds extend in networks through solids that are not composed of discrete molecules (such as diamond or quartz or the silicate minerals in many types of rock) then the structures that result may be both strong and tough, at least in the direction oriented correctly with networks of covalent bonds. Also, the melting points of such covalent polymers and networks increase greatly. In a simplified view of an ionic bond, the bonding electron is not shared at all, but transferred. In this type of bond, the outer atomic orbital of one atom has a vacancy which allows the addition of one or more electrons. These newly added electrons potentially occupy a lower energy-state (effectively closer to more nuclear charge) than they experience in a different atom. Thus, one nucleus offers a more tightly bound position to an electron than does another nucleus, with the result that one atom may transfer an electron to the other. This transfer causes one atom to assume a net positive charge, and the other to assume a net negative charge. The bond then results from electrostatic attraction between atoms and the atoms become positive or negatively charged ions. Ionic bonds may be seen as extreme examples of polarization in covalent bonds. Often, such bonds have no particular orientation in space, since they result from equal electrostatic attraction of each ion to all ions around them. Ionic bonds are strong (and thus ionic substances require high temperatures to melt) but also brittle, since the forces between ions are short-range and do not easily bridge cracks and fractures. This type of bond gives rise to the physical characteristics of crystals of classic mineral salts, such as table salt. A less often mentioned type of bonding is metallic bonding. In this type of bonding, each atom in a metal donates one or more electrons to a "sea" of electrons that reside between many metal atoms. In this sea, each electron is free (by virtue of its wave nature) to be associated with a great many atoms at once. The bond results because the metal atoms become somewhat positively charged due to loss of their electrons while the electrons remain attracted to many atoms, without being part of any given atom.
Hydrogen Bonding and Common Mistakes
 
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To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry Hydrogen bonding can be so confusing, and in this video we talk about some common mistakes. Hydrogen bonds are intermolecular forces between molecules. They form because one atom has a high electronegativity, so it gets a partial negative charge, and the hydrogen gets a partial positive charge.
Views: 574696 Tyler DeWitt
√ Effect of Light on Silver Salts | Chemical Earth | Chemistry
 
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#iitutor #Chemistry #ChemicalEarth https://www.iitutor.com The energy changes accompanying physical and chemical change have been discussed. In general terms it was suggested that chemical change is often accompanied by the absorption or release of greater quantities of energy than physical change because chemical change involves the breaking (and making) of chemical bonds. In chemical compounds, atoms of two or more elements are chemically combined.:The atoms are held together by chemical bonds, either covalent or ionic bonds. Chemical compounds are often classified into three general types-ionic compounds, covalent molecular compounds and covalent network compounds. The bond energies for covalent bonds vary in the approximate range 150-1100 kJ mol-1. Simple covalent molecular substances consist of molecules in which the atoms are held together by covalent bonds. The bond energy indicates the strength of the forces holding the atoms together in the molecule. Covalent network substances consist of a three-dimensional arrangement of atoms joined by covalent bonds. In sodium chloride the lattice consists of Na and Cl ions. The separation of the Na and Cl ions requires a large amount of energy, called the lattice energy, which is a measure of the strength of the ionic bond. For NaCl the energy required to separate the Na and Cl ions is 788 kJ mol , which indicates the considerable strength of ionic bonds. Similarly the quantity of energy needed to separate Mg and O ions in magnesium oxide is 3800 kJ mol . The range of ionic lattice energies is approximately 400 4000 kJ mol-1. Comparing the strength of the ionic bonds on ZnS and MgS. Both ZnS and MgS are ionic compounds. The energy required to decompose each compound to produce 1 kg of the metal is 3151 kJ and 14 280 kJ respectively. The much higher value for MgS indicates a much stronger ionic bond in this crystal than in ZnS. Comparing the strength of the covalent bonds H O and H S. Water and hydrogen sulfide are molecular compounds in which two hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to an oxygen or sulfur atom respectively. The energy required to decompose 1 kg of water vapour and hydrogen sulfide gas into its gaseous atoms is 51 444 kJ and 21 412 kJ respectively. The higher value for water indicates that the O H bonds are much stronger than the S H bonds in hydrogen sulfide.
Views: 28 iitutor.com
√√ Effect of Light on Silver Salts | Chemical Earth | Chemistry
 
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https://www.iitutor.com The energy changes accompanying physical and chemical change have been discussed. In general terms it was suggested that chemical change is often accompanied by the absorption or release of greater quantities of energy than physical change because chemical change involves the breaking (and making) of chemical bonds. In chemical compounds, atoms of two or more elements are chemically combined.:The atoms are held together by chemical bonds, either covalent or ionic bonds. Chemical compounds are often classified into three general types-ionic compounds, covalent molecular compounds and covalent network compounds. The bond energies for covalent bonds vary in the approximate range 150-1100 kJ mol-1. Simple covalent molecular substances consist of molecules in which the atoms are held together by covalent bonds. The bond energy indicates the strength of the forces holding the atoms together in the molecule. Covalent network substances consist of a three-dimensional arrangement of atoms joined by covalent bonds. In sodium chloride the lattice consists of Na and Cl ions. The separation of the Na and Cl ions requires a large amount of energy, called the lattice energy, which is a measure of the strength of the ionic bond. For NaCl the energy required to separate the Na and Cl ions is 788 kJ mol , which indicates the considerable strength of ionic bonds. Similarly the quantity of energy needed to separate Mg and O ions in magnesium oxide is 3800 kJ mol . The range of ionic lattice energies is approximately 400 4000 kJ mol-1. Comparing the strength of the ionic bonds on ZnS and MgS. Both ZnS and MgS are ionic compounds. The energy required to decompose each compound to produce 1 kg of the metal is 3151 kJ and 14 280 kJ respectively. The much higher value for MgS indicates a much stronger ionic bond in this crystal than in ZnS. Comparing the strength of the covalent bonds H O and H S. Water and hydrogen sulfide are molecular compounds in which two hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to an oxygen or sulfur atom respectively. The energy required to decompose 1 kg of water vapour and hydrogen sulfide gas into its gaseous atoms is 51 444 kJ and 21 412 kJ respectively. The higher value for water indicates that the O H bonds are much stronger than the S H bonds in hydrogen sulfide.
Views: 10 iitutor.com
Covalent bonding demonstration for sixth grade science lesson
 
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Anna Lauren uses Skittles candy and toothpicks to demonstrate covalent bonding between hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and chlorine atoms for a school science project. In covalent bonding, the atoms aren't stable because the external electron rings aren't full. When they share electrons with other atoms in the compound, the atoms fill those outer rings with shared electrons and therefore become stable. In one of Anna Lauren's examples of water, the oxygen atom requires two additional electrons to become stable, while the hydrogen atoms both lack one electron. In the covalent bond,, the oxygen atom shares one of its electrons with hydrogen atom, and the hydrogen atoms share their electron with the oxygen atom. Covalent bonding creates strong ties between atoms, making it difficult to separate molecules joined by covalent bonding. However, molecules that use covalent bonds don't have strong attraction (unlike with ionic bonding), which causes them to move more freely around other molecules of the same compound. The result of this property means that most covalently bonded molecules form liquids or gases, such as water or carbon dioxide.
Views: 515 Steve Pearce