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02:12
This is how we plot a Running Fix Position: Assuming the course is 080° degrees and the speed is 8 knots, or 8 nautical miles per hour, we take a bearing of 045° degrees on Alfa rock at 0900, now convert the compass bearings to true bearings and we plot it on the chart. After 30 minutes we take a new bearing on the same rock that reads 015°degrees, now convert the compass bearings to true bearings and plot it on the chart along with the new time - 0930. Knowing the speed, the next step is to determine the distance that the vessel sailed from 0900 to 0930. For that we use the formula: D is equal to S times T divided by 60, where D is the distance in nautical miles, S is the boat speed, and T is the time in minutes. In our case: 8 knots times 30 minutes divided by 60 equals 4 nautical miles. Using the dividers, we span a distance of 4 miles on the latitude scale which is closest to the course line, and which runs along the sides of the chart. We applied this span on our course, placing one leg of the dividers on the 0900 LOP intercepting the course and the other leg on the course line. Using the parallel ruler we transfer the 0900 LOP to the blue mark. As we notice, the two LOPs intercept at the point RF. This is our Running Fix position.

02:07
Demo for Coastal & Offshore skipper from http://www.nauticalive.com

02:08
Here are the sound signal rules to be followed by vessels in restricted visibility: A power-driven vessel underway must sound one prolonged blast every two minutes. A power-driven vessel underway but stopped and making no way through the water must sound two prolonged blasts every 2 minutes with an interval of about 2 seconds between them. A vessel not under command; a vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver, whether underway or at anchor; a vessel constrained by her draft; a sailing vessel; a vessel engaged in fishing, whether underway or at anchor; or a vessel engaged in towing or pushing another vessel must sound one prolonged blast plus two short blasts every two minutes. A vessel at anchor must ring the bell rapidly for 5 seconds every one minute. A vessel at anchor of 100 meters or more in length is required to ring the bell rapidly for 5 seconds every one minute, and immediately after the ringing of the bell to sound the gong for 5 seconds in the aft part of the vessel.

01:32
Transits are not only used to determine your position line, they can also be used to check your compass error. On your chart, look for two objects in line. As you already know, transits can be man-made objects or natural ones. So, the two objects can be two beacons, two buoys, a building and a light house, or other objects. With your parallel ruler, determine the True Bearing of the transit and make a note of it. In this case the True Bearing is 115 degrees. Now point the bow of your boat towards the two objects. When they come in transit, make a note of your Compass Bearing, which in this case is 120 degrees. As the Compass Bearing is more (best) than the True one, the error is West. To memorize that, remember: Compass best error West, Compass least error East. To find the error, subtract 120 degrees Compass from 115 degrees True). The Error of our compass is 5 degrees West.

01:48
You can obtain a fix by combining two or more distances or distances and compass bearings. This is how you plot a fix position combining two or more distances: Let's assume you sail near the coast. The radar is in good working condition and in operation. Taking into account your last position, and after comparing the nautical chart's coast line with that on the radar screen, you spot two points on the screen, A and B, from where you can take distances. The equivalent ones on the nautical chart are points A and B. Using the radar's range marker you measure a distance of 5.2 nautical miles from point A, and 2.8 nautical miles from point B. You note the time - let's assume it is 0930 hours. Then return to the nautical chart, and using the dividers, span a distance of 5.2 nautical miles on the latitude scale which is closest to the present position and which runs along the sides of the chart. Apply this span, placing one leg of the dividers at point A, and draw a semicircle near the course line. Now span a distance of 2.8 nautical miles and apply this span, placing one leg of the dividers at point B, and draw a second semicircle intersecting the first semicircle and near the course line. The point where the two semicircles intersect is the fix position at 0930 hours.

01:25
Another very important aid to one - way radio communication is the EPIRB. EPIRB stands for Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon. The EPIRB transmits the distress alert to a satellite. The satellite locates the EPIRB's position and relays the information to a Land Station, and in turn the Land Station relays the information to a rescue coordination center. EPIRBs contain an optional 121.5 MHz homing beacon. This homing device facilitates Search and Rescue Helicopters with VHF direction finders. The EPIRB is also fitted with a hydrostatic release unit, Which, if the vessel sinks, releases at a certain depth the EPIRB automatically from its stowage position. When the EPIRB emerges on the surface it will automatically start the distress alert.

01:27
in order to extinguish a fire properly, you have to understand the materials that are burning. A fire involving wood must be handled differently than a fire involving petrol. Therefore fire is divided into 6 classes: Class "A" fires involving ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth, plastic and paper. Class "B" fires involving flammable liquids or flammable solids such as grease, paint, oil, petrol, varnish and fat. Class "C" fires involving gases such as butane, propane, acetylene. Class "D" fires involving burning metals such as magnesium, titanium, potassium. Class "E" fires involving electrical hazards. Class "F" fires involving flammable liquids such as deep fat fryers. A class "D" fire should only be tackled by qualified personnel trained in the handling of this class of fire.

02:04
When we are on an open sea passage out of sight of land, at night or in a dense fog, we must be able to keep an accurate track of our position and course at all times. There are many ways we can do this, and many techniques we can use for finding our position. The most basic technique is called the Dead-Reckoning Technique. Let's assume that we are sailing from A to B, and that A is the last fixed position plotted on the chart at 10:00. Now it is 11:30 and we have to plot a new position using the Dead Reckoning (DR). The true course is 045 degrees, and the speed through the water, taken from the speed log is 7 knots Knowing the course, the speed, and the running time from 10:00 am to 11:30 am, we can find the distance sailed using the formula - D is equal to S times T divided by 60, where D is the distance in nautical miles, S is the boat speed, and T is the time in minutes. In our case: 7 knots times 90 minutes divided by 60 equals 10.5 nautical miles. Using the dividers, we span a distance of 10.5 miles on the latitude scale which is closest to the course line, and which runs along the sides of the chart. We applied this span on our course, placing one leg of the dividers on the 10:00 position and the other leg on the course, marking the new position with an X, recording the time of 11:30am.

02:24
If we apply the set and the drift of the tide to the 11:30 Dead Reckoning (DR) position, we will have converted this position to an 11:30 Estimated Position (EP). To work out the set (direction) and the drift (speed) of the tide, we refer to the tidal diamonds on the nautical chart, or to the tidal stream atlas. Let's assume that at that time the set is 110 degrees, which means that the direction of the tide is towards 110 degrees, and the drift is 3 knots. To apply the set (direction) of the tide on the 11:30 Dead Reckoning (DR) position we place the parralel ruler on the 110 degree line of the compass rose and transfer that line to the DR position. To apply the drift (speed) of the tide on the 11:30 Dead Reckoning (DR) position to our time frame we use the formula: D is equal to S times T divided by 60, where D is the distance in nautical miles, S is the tide speed, and T is the time in minutes. In our case: 3 knots times 90 minutes divided by 60 equals 4.5 nautical miles. Using the dividers, we span a distance of 4.5 miles on the latitude scale which is closest to the course line and which runs along the sides of the chart. We apply this span, placing one leg of the dividers on the 11:30 DR position and the other leg on the 110 degrees tide set, marking the new position with a triangle, recording the time as 11:30. This is our 11:30 Estimated Position (EP). Using the parallel ruler, we transfer the 045 degrees course to the new 1130 Estimated Position, and from there we continue to plot our new positions as we progress on our route .

01:49
A vessel at anchor may in addition to the bell and/or gong, sound one short, one prolonged and one short blast to give warning of her position, and of the possibility of collision, to an approaching vessel. A vessel aground must ring the bell, and if required, sound the gong, and in addition, must ring three separate and distinct strokes on the bell immediately before and after the rapid ringing of the bell. A vessel of less than 12 meters in length is not obliged to give the previously described signals, but if she does not, shall make some other efficient sound signal at intervals of not more than 2 minutes. A pilot vessel when engaged on pilotage duty shall, in addition to the signals prescribed for power-driven vessels, sound an identity signal consisting of four short blasts.

01:19
GMDSS system uses the following communication devices DSC Radios, EPIRB, SART, NAVTEX, INMARSAT. DSC Radios profive automatic transmitting and reciving messages. VHF DSC Radios automatically watch on channel 70. Which is a non voice channel an alarm will sound when there is an incoming call for your vessel. Or all ships call concerning urgency or safety, a distress call or a distress relay. Radio will indicate a chanel for additional communication. Such as channel 16 for distress work. Or channel 72 for ship to ship communication.

02:07
Правила звуковых сигналов, которым должны следовать суда в условиях ограниченной видимости: Судно с механическим двигателем на ходу должно подавать один продолжительный звук каждые две минуты. Судно с механическим двигателем на ходу, но остановившееся и не имеющее хода по воде, должно подавать два продолжительных звука через каждые 2 минуты с интервалом в 2 секунды между ними. Судно не управляемое; судно, ограниченное в возможности маневрирования, начиная движение (на ходу) или на якоре, судно, стестенное своей осадкой, парусное судно, рыболовное судно, на ходу или на якоре, или судно, занятое буксировкой или толкающее другое судно, должно подавать один продолжительный гудок плюс два коротких гудка каждые две минуты. Судно на якоре должно звонить в колокол в течение 5 секунд каждую минуту. Судно на якоре 100 и более метров в длину должно звонить в колокол быстро в течение 5 секунд каждую минуту, и сразу же после звона колокола бить в гонг в течение 5 секунд в кормовой части судна.

01:43
Место нахождения также может быть получено путем объединения пеленга компаса и расстояния до того же маяка. Вы можете определить расстояние, зная высоту и вертикальный угол секстанта к маяку. Предположим, что вы плаваете у берега, и на карте вы заметили маяк A. Среди характеристик маяка, вы читаете, что он имеет высоту 103 метра или 338 фута. Это высота над средним сизигийным уровнем воды. После расчета высоты прилива в это время, исправленная высота маяка составляет 105 метров или 345 футов. Используйте секстант измерьте вертикальный угол маяка. Предположим, что после учета ошибки, вертикальный угол - 2 градуса и 30 минут. Зная исправленную высоту и исправленный вертикальный угол секстанта маяка, вычислите расстояние, используя формулу: D = 0,565 x Н / V, где D - расстояние в морских милях, Н - высота маяка в футах, и V - вертикальный угол секстанта в минутах. В нашем случае, 345 футов x 0,565 / 150 = 1,3 морские мили.

01:43
Как проложить курс. Давайте предположим, что хотим попасть из А в В, и А является отправной точкой и В - местом прибытия. Используя параллельную линейку и карандаш, нарисуйте линию, соединяющую две точки А и B. Эта линия есть курс, которой вам нужно следовать по морскому дну, чтобы прибыть в точку B - это называется Курс по Земле. Мы отмечаем этот курс 2 стрелками. Следующий и очень важный шаг проверить, что вами нарисованный курс по морскому дну, свободен от любых опасностей, таких как опасные обломки или камней. Теперь найдите, сколько морских миль от А до B, другими словами, расстояние до следующей точки назначения. Используя циркуль вы увидите, что расстояние составляет 16 морских миль. Давайте предположим, что ожидаемая скорость лодки составляет 8 узлов. Разделив расстояние 16 морских миль на скорость судна 8 узлов дает нам переход от А к В за 2 часа. При отправлении из А 08:00 часов ваша ETA или расчетное время прибытия в B будет 10:00 часов. Используя параллельную линейку, вы обнаружите, что ваш Истинный Курс - 045 градусов. В этом примере мы не учитывали ни последствия Ветра ни течений Прилива.

01:50
Distress pyrotechnics come in various types: handheld, buoyant, or as parachute rockets. The red parachute rocket is designed for long - range signaling. During the day the visibility of the flare is up to 8 nautical miles and at night up to 21 nautical miles. The rocket carries its payload to a height of 984 feet and then ejects a red flare. The burning time is 40 seconds at 30.000 candelas. The red hand flare is used for short - range signaling situations. During a clear dark night the visibility of the flare is 5 nautical miles at sea level and 10 nautical miles from an aircraft. In daylight the visibility is reduced. The burning time is 60 seconds at a min. of 15.000 candelas, and the flare is red. The buoyant orange smoke signal is used in daylight only, to pinpoint the distress position to a searching aircraft. It emits dense orange smoke for about 2 minutes. It is very important to read the instructions for use on each distress signal carefully. Store your signaling devices in a marked watertight container which should be readily available. All pyrotechnics are equipped with a date of expiration. Replace expired pyrotechnics as they become less reliable. To dispose of them, return them to the manufacturer or to the nearest coast guard station.

01:24
More sailing lessons http://www.nauticalive.com/courses/coastal-skipper/

02:01
Here are the different types and scales of charts: Sailing charts, where the scale is 1:500,000 and smaller, are used for offshore navigation beyond sight of land. The general charts have a scale of 1:150,000 - 1:500,000, and give wide-ranging offshore coverage with sufficient inshore detail to make landfall sightings easy. Fisheries charts use these scales. The coastal chart uses a scale of 1:50,000 - 1:150,000, and is used to show uninterrupted wide-ranging coverage with adequate inshore detail to make landfall sightings easy. Fisheries charts also use these scales. The approach chart has a scale of 1:15,000 - 1:50,000, and is used for approaching coasts where great detail is required. Harbour charts, which have a scale is1:5,000 - 1:15,000, are used for navigation in harbors or intricate, hazardous, shoal-infested waters. Bar Scales: a bar scale is a graphic scale represented by a line or a bar that is subdivided into nautical miles, feet, or meters. This bar is used for measuring distances on the chart. Elevation Contours: these are lines connecting points of equal elevation. They are a graphical way of showing the shape and slope of hills and mountains that might be helpful in identifying them on the chart. Once identified, they can help identify your location on the water.

01:09
A TOWING VESSEL: A Towing vessel when towing shall exhibit: - Two masthead lights in a vertical line. When the length of the tow, measured from the stern of the towing vessel to the aft end of the tow exceeds 200 meters, three such lights in a vertical line. - Separate sidelights - A stern light - A towing yellow light in a vertical line above the sternlight - A diamond shape where it can best be seen. A vessel or object being towed, shall exhibit: - Separate sidelights - A sternlight - When the lenght of the tow exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where it can best be seen.

01:31
When you are selecting an anchoring position, make sure that it is sheltered from the wind and waves, and away from ship or boat traffic. Check the chart to determine the depth where you wish to anchor, and calculate the amount of cable you should pay out. As a minimum, you should pay out-for rope cable with a length of chain - five times the depth of water in which you wish to anchor plus the distance from the water to the bow where the anchor is attached. For example, if you measure a water depth at 7 meters (23 feet) and the distance from the water to the bow where the anchor is attached is 1 meter (3,2 feet), then the total distance of 8 meters (26.2 feet), should be multiplied by five to get the amount of cable to pay out. The result is 40 meters (131 feet) of cable. For chain cable the minimum ratio is 3 to 1 The deeper the water, and the more severe the weather, the more cable you will need to pay out.

01:06
SART stands for Search and Rescue Transponder. It is a device for locating ships or their survival craft in distress. The SART operates in the 9 GHz frequency band - generating a series of dots when being interrogated by a search craft with an X - Band (3cm) radar. As the search craft approaches to within 1 nautical mile of the SART, the 12 dots change to wide arcs and eventually into complete circles as the search craft nears the SART. For the person in distress the SART provides a visual and acoustic indication when being interrogated. The detection range from a rescue ship to the SART is a minimum of 5 nautical miles, and from a Search and Rescue helicopter up to 40 nautical miles.

01:52
Start a MAYDAY CALL procedure as follows: Check that the main battery switch is on; and switch the radio to a high power setting. select channel 16 on VHF or 2182 kHz on an MF transmitter. When you use the MF transmitter the distress message should be preceded by the two-tone alarm. Press the transmit button and say slowly and clearly: MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY this is... (repeat the name of vessel 3 times). MAYDAY this is... (name of vessel spoken once). My position is... (state your latitude and longitude, or true bearing and distance from a known point). Now give information about the nature of distress, assistance required, number of persons on board and other vital information. End your MAYDAY call with the word "over". For example: Mayday, Mayday, Mayday this is Seahorse "A,", Seahorse "A", Seahorse "A". Mayday this is Seahorse "A". My position is: 051 degrees, 25 minutes North and 004 degrees 55 minutes West. I am on fire and require immediate assistance. 6 adults and 2 children on board, 8 in total. 1 adult is injured and in critical condition. Over.

01:41
Other factors that you should take notice of when looking at the nautical chart are: The depths note, This shows which units of measurement are used to indicate the depths on the chart. You may read SOUNDINGS IN FATHOMS AND FEET or SOUNDINGS IN METERS. Sounding in fathoms and feet indicates that soundings are in fathoms with subscript in feet. The larger number indicates fathoms, and the small number indicates feet. For example, if you see a spot depth of a large 3 followed by a small 4. This indicate a depth of 3 fathoms and 4 feet, or 22 feet, as one fathom is six feet. Sounding in meters indicates that soundings are in meters and decimeters. For example you see a spot depth of a large 7 followed by a small 6. This indicate a depth of 7 meters and 6 tenths of a meter. You can convert between meters, feet and fathoms by using the depth conversion table provided on the chart. The depths indicated on the chart are all based on Chart Datum. This could be the Mean Lower Low Water, or the Mean Low Water, or other tidal datum. To avoid grounding you have to take into consideration the height of tide and the tidal range.

02:03
Another method of taking a running fix is by doubling the angle on the bow, having in mind the properties of an isosceles triangle. This fix requires the first bearing to be less than 45° from the bow. Assuming the course is 090° degrees and the speed is 10 knots, or 10 nautical miles per hour. We take a bearing of 060° degrees of the Charley radio tower at 0900 or 30° degrees from the bow. Now convert the compass bearings to true bearings and plot it on the chart. We observe the Charley radio tower, and when the new bearing reads 030° degrees, or 60° degrees from the bow, we note the time, 0915. Now convert the compass bearings to true bearings and plot it on the chart. Knowing the speed - 10 knots - and the elapsed time between the two bearings - 15 minutes - we use the formula: D is equal to S times T divided by 60, to calculate the sailing distance between the two bearings. In our case that is 2.5 nautical miles per hour. As we can see, the two bearings and the course form an isosceles triangle - ABC - where sides c and b are equal. That means that the distance from the Charley radio tower, when we took the second bearing at 0915 was 2.5 nautical miles. Using this method we have a bearing and a distance using only one object.

01:25
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon Mostcommon epirb operates on 406MHz using polar orbiting satelites. Its the simplest means of comunication, providing only one way of communication. The EPIRB transmits a distress signal and a satallite system calculates distress position and relays coordinates to nearest rescue centre. Most 406MHz EPIRB also transmits signal on 121.5MHz that allows search and rescue units to obtain a radio bearing of the EPIRB. Epirb is attached to the vesselwith a hidrostatic release, that lets it float free in case the vessel sinks. It is very important to register your EPIRB with the appropriate national authority, so that when you activate your epirb, your vessel details, such as name, size and type of vessel are known immediately to the RCCs.

02:41
According to the International Regulations of Preventing Collisions at Sea (ColReg), navigation lights have a specific - color (white, red, green, yellow or blue), - arc of illumination, - range of visibility and - location. The basic navigation lights are: - The masthead light is a white light, placed over the fore-and after-centerline of the vessel and that is visible over a 225°arc. From dead ahead to 22.5° abaft (behind) the beam on both sides of the vessel. - The All-round light is a light, with the color determined by its use and is visible over a 360° arc. - The sidelights are colored lights - red on port and green on the starboard side of the boat and is visible over a 112.5° arc, from dead ahead to 22.5° abaft the beam on each side. - The stern light is a white light, centered on dead astern, and is visible over a 135° arc. The side lights can be combined in one lantern at the bow. The sidelights can be combined with the stern light in a tricolour light at the masthead. - The towing light, is a yellow light and is used in a towing operation. Centered on dead astern vertically above the stern light and is visible over a 135° arc. - The flashing light is a yellow or blue flashing light with minimum 120 flashes per minute and is visible over a 360° arc.

01:33
Anchoring with one anchor: On the Nautical chart, select and mark the position at which you intend to anchor. Make your approach slowly into the wind or current, whichever is stronger, to the spot you have selected. Stop the boat and drop the anchor, allowing it to reach the sea bed. Then slowly back the boat away, downwind or down current to stop the chain and/or rope from piling up. Using the rudder by means of the wheel, and the engine by means of the throttle, steer the boat and lay out the cable along the sea bed . To make sure that you don't drag your anchor after anchoring, it is essential to check your position periodically. To do this take compass bearings, using transits if possible and if you have radar check ranges from the shore. If the reference points and ranges you take stay the same, then you are not dragging your anchor. Establish anchor watch during your stay at the anchorage to make sure you're not drifting.

01:47
A Fix can also be obtained by combining a compass bearing and a visual range. Assume your course is 360° degrees, or North, and your speed is 7 knots. While looking at the nautical chart you spot the lighthouse A and the range marks B and C. While waiting for the two range marks B and C to come visually in line, go to the nautical chart and connect them with a line, draw the first LOP, crossing the course line. Observe the two range marks, and as soon as they are in line, write down the time, let's say 0930 hours, and immediately take a bearing on lighthouse A using the hand held compass. let's assume that after applying the variation correction the lighthouse bearing is 045° degrees true bearing. Place the parallel ruler on the compass rose at the 045° degree line and transfer that line passing from lighthouse A and crossing the course line. As you can now see, the lighthouse bearing crosses the pre-drawn LOP of the range marks. This point of crossing represents your fix position at 0930 hours.

01:26
Isophase (Iso.): the duration of darkness is equal to the duration of the light at any length of cycle. Group flashing (Gp.Fl.): in this cycle there is a combination of two or more groups of flashes in one cycle at regular intervals. For example (Gp.Fl. 3+5). Occulting (Occ.): the duration of the light is always greater than the duration of darkness and appears at regular intervals. Morse (Mo.(A)): in this pattern the light shows one short flash followed by a long one which is equivalent to the letter "A" in Morse code. Alternating (Al.): this pattern is used for special applications where great caution is required. In this case the light alternates color, for example Al.W.R.. Long flashing (L.Fl.): in this pattern the light shows a long flash - at least 2 seconds in each period.

01:35
Чтобы учитывать скорость и направление течения, в первую очередь мы будем использовать направление течения - 115 Истинных градусов от точки А. Размещаем параллельную линейку на линию 115 градусов, а затем переносим в точку А и рисуем линию. С помощью циркуля мы охватываем 2,3 морских мили от шкалы широты. Тогда мы ставим одну ножку циркуля на точку А, а другую ножку в направлении течения и отмечаем эту точку C. Отмечаем эту линию 3 стрелками в направлении течения- это обозначает воздействие прилива. Теперь откройте ваш циркуль к скорости в 8 узлов судна. Установите одну ножку циркуля на точку С и отметьте точку, где другая ножка пересекает трек D. Нарисуйте линию, соединяющую точки C и D. Отмечаем эту линию с одной стрелкой, это курс управления (следования). Теперь трансформируем параллель линейки к компасу и считываем курс. Истинный курс, направленный в точку B, 027 градусов. Этот курс требует компенсировать последствия воздействия течения в течении одного часа. Не забывайте преобразовать ваш курс управления от истинного курса компасному курсу!

01:34
Combining Cross Compass Bearings A Fix can be obtained by combining Cross Compass Bearings using a hand-held compass. Assume your course is 360 degrees (North) and your speed is 7 knots. You are sailing near the coast and you have lighthouse A, lighthouse B and the island C in sight. The time is now 1015 and your last estimated position was at 0930. Checking your nautical chart, you locate and identify the two lighthouses and the island. Next, take compass bearings of the three identified objects, A, B, and C, with your hand held compass. Now, convert the Compass Bearings to True Bearings by applying the correction for Variation, using the formula "From Magnetic to True, subtract the Westerly Variation and add the Easterly Variation". Let's assume that after applying the correction, the true bearing of the lighthouse A is 045°, the true bearing of the lighthouse B is 090°, and the true bearing of the island C is 135°.

01:29
Lateral marks: As stated, lateral marks indicate the port and starboard boundaries of a route to be followed e.g. channel. Lateral marks differ between buoyage system A and buoyage system B. Lateral marks are usually positioned to indicate port and starboard boundaries in well-established channels. When entering a port, the green mark (the starboard hand buoy) should be seen on your vessel's starboard side, and the red mark (the port hand buoy) should be seen on your vessel's port side. When you are departing the port, the green mark should be seen on your vessel's port side, and the red mark should be seen on your vessel's starboard side. The port hand mark has the shape of a can or a spar, and is colored red with a single red can as a top mark (if there is any). By night a port hand mark shows a flashing red light. The starboard hand mark has the shape of a cone or a spar, and is colored green, with a single green cone point upwards as a top mark (if there is any). By night a starboard hand mark shows a flashing green light.

01:12
Your raft should be easily and permanently accessible. Never tie your life raft with a rope or store it inside a boat. In case the boat sinks, the life raft would be trapped and eventually lost. To avoid losing your raft, place it in a cradle. Secure the raft with a slip hook to the hydrostatic release unit, and secure the painter with a weak link to a strong point. If the vessel sinks, within 4 meters (13 feet) the water pressure will activate the release unit and the life raft will float free. The painter will be stretched, activating the CO2 bottle, and the life raft will start to inflate. The weak link breaks and sets the raft free. The raft is then ready for boarding.

01:16
In this lesson you will learn to anchor using two anchors. There are two popular methods that cover most situations: a) Anchoring with the anchors set 180 degrees from each other and b) anchoring with the anchors set 45 degrees off the bow. Anchoring by setting the anchors 180 degrees from each other reduces the swinging circle and works very well when the wind direction remains constant or changes direction 180 degrees , or in a current that reverses direction, or in a narrow stream. Anchoring while you set the anchors 45 degrees off the bow improves holding power. One anchor works as a backup if the other drags, and the load is shared between the two anchors. This also works well when the wind significantly changes direction.

00:52
Let's have a closer look at "Tidal Heights" and "Chart Datum". On nautical charts, soundings and drying heights are measured from Chart Datum. Chart Datum is the Lowest Astronomical Tide or L A T , meaning the lowest level to which the tide is expected to fall. All depths on a chart are measured below chart datum and all drying heights are measured above it. Non-drying heights, for example a lighthouse, are always measured above Mean High Water Springs, not Chart Datum, as an added safety margin. The height of tide is always measured above Chart Datum.

01:40
Use your Deviation Card to convert between Magnetic and Compass Courses. To create a Deviation Card, steer an accurate course of due North (000 degrees compass). Take a hand bearing compass to sight along the centerline of the boat and position yourself at the stern, clear of any possible interferences. Note down the course steered and the reading from the hand bearing compass. In our case the course steered is 000° and the reading from the hand bearing compass is 002 degrees, alter the course to 030 degrees compass and repeat the procedure. For the second reading the course steered is 030° and the reading from the hand bearing compass is 033°. Complete a 360 degree turn, noting your Compass Course and the reading of the hand bearing compass for every 30 degrees alternation. As you complete the readings, note on the Deviation Card your Compass Courses - 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees and so on. Then on the relevant Compass Course note the respective hand bearing observations. On the right side, mark the easterly variation and on the left side the westerly.

01:06
An occluded front occurs when a cold front catches a warm front. There are two types of occluded fronts: the-cold-occlusion front and the warm-occlusion-front. A cold occlusion occurs when the air mass behind the occluded front is colder than the air mass ahead of it. A warm occlusion occurs when the air mass behind the occluded front is warmer than the air mass ahead of it. A cold occluded front is normally more severe than a warm occluded front because the rainfall is heavier, and higher gusts can be expected during the passage of the front. Typically, precipitation occurs on both sides of cold and warm occluded fronts. Also, the cloud and weather sequences are a combination of characteristics of both cold and warm fronts.

01:34
When in sight of another vessel and no flares or radio are available you can use the signaling flags to call attention to a distress situation. If you require assistance you can use the Code Flag "Victor". Hoist the Code Flag "November" above the Code Flag "Charly" or a black square over a black ball if you are in imminent danger and immediate assistance is required . Code Flag "Whiskey" is used if you require medical assistance. Sound signals made with a whistle or a gong can also be helpful in attracting attention. If no signaling device is available use your arms. Stand facing in the direction of assistance and slowly raise and lower your arms. A combination of flags, audio and arm signals can be used to attract attention.

03:32
http://www.NauticaLive.com SMARTKAT - small, inflatable catamaran and sailing with it, you will learn how to feel the wind. Sailing with this catamaran offers a real joy. You can sail on the edge of extreme sailing with speed of 18 knots or you can slowly take a sunbath and feel the gentle rolls of sea, taking a lounge on catamaran not far from the coast. Imagine how pleasant this lounge would be with loved one on a warm, sunny day, because this catamaran is almost as comfortable double water bed! SMARTKAT is so mobile that it can move with the same speed as jet, if you have packed it in two bags, which together weigh only 42kg and placed in the aircraft baggage compartment. If catamaran is packed in bags, you can put it even in the smallest car trunk. Catamaran can be easily deployable, and you can proceed with confidence to the beach.

42:50
DE navigationshilfen https://itunes.apple.com/de/app/segelschule/id599408764?mt=8 Diese Applikation enthält ein Komplettpaket der Videolektionen, welche Segel- und Motorbootkapitäne den Erwerbung oder das Auffrischen der theoretischen Kentnisse erleichtern wird. Mit Hilfe der enthaltenen Tests können Segelschulen ihre Schüler überprüfen. Die Tests bestehen aus folgenden Teilen – Fragen, Abbildungen, Animationen, Prüfungs-, Lehr- und Hilfsteil. Die Applikation kann auch als Hilfe zur Vorbereitung auf die Prüfung dienen. Es ist empfohlen dieses Material jedes Mal vor einem Charter wieder durchzusehen. In der Applikation werden folgende Themen behandelt: Bootskunde Rumpf Rigg Segel Trimmung Yachttypenkunde Segeltheorie Stabilität Segelfunktionen Richtungen Kurse Tauwerk Festmacherleinen Knoten Behandlung Tauwerk Manöver Kurswechsel Besondere Manöver Ab-Anliegen Ankern Ankerarten Vorbereitung Ankern Verstauung Sicherheit Sichtverhältnisse Sicherheitsausrüstung Notsignale Seefunk E.P.I.R.B. S.A.R.T. Rettung Brandverhütung Gesetzeskunde Navigationslichter und Signalkörper Schallsignale Richtungen Seeschifffahrtsstrassenordnung Schifffahrtszeichen Besondere Situationen Navigation Grundlagen Seekarten Magnetkompass Kursbestimmung Ortsbestimmung Törnplan Navigationshilfen Leuchtfeuer Betonnung Elektronische Navigation Gezeitenkunde Gezeiten Gezeitströme Meteorologie Wettervorhersagen Windmessung Grundwissen Luftmassen Wolken Nebel

01:31
A Fix can also be obtained by combining a compass bearing and a visual range. Assume your course is 360° degrees, or North, and your speed is 7 knots. While looking at the nautical chart you spot the lighthouse A and the range marks B and C. While waiting for the two range marks B and C to come visually in line, go to the nautical chart and connect them with a line, draw the first LOP, crossing the course line. Observe the two range marks, and as soon as they are in line, write down the time, let's say 0930 hours, and immediately take a bearing on lighthouse A using the hand held compass. let's assume that after applying the variation correction the lighthouse bearing is 045° degrees true bearing. Place the parallel ruler on the compass rose at the 045° degree line and transfer that line passing from lighthouse A and crossing the course line. As you can now see, the lighthouse bearing crosses the pre-drawn LOP of the range marks. This point of crossing represents your fix position at 0930 hours.

01:27
Because the air is denser at sea level than at higher altitudes, you must also correct for the actual height above sea level. Use the table "correction of millibar barometers to mean sea level" for the altitude correction. This table is available in the Nautical Almanacs. Let's look at how to apply the correction. First, note your barometer reading, the air temperature and your actual height above sea level. Let's assume that the barometer reading is 1015.4 millibars, the air temperature is 20 degrees Celsius and your height above sea level is 5 meters. By applying the air temperature and height above sea level to the chart, you see that the correction is 0.6 millibars. Add this figure to your barometer reading. Hence, the barometer reading corrected to mean sea level is 1015.4 millibars plus 0.6 millibars, which equals 1016 millibars. Keep in mind that the greater the height above sea level and the greater the temperature, the greater your correction to mean sea level will be.

23:36

00:59
There are four main types of fog: radiation fog, advection fog, frontal fog and sea smoke. Radiation fog is formed in a clear sky and adjacent to rapidly cooling land. The land will cool the air above it, causing water vapor to condense into droplets. Radiation fog first forms in valleys, and during the early morning it can even expand several miles out to sea. Rivers and estuaries may also be affected. When the sun rises and the land starts to heat up, radiation fog quickly disperses. In situations where the land takes longer to heat up, for example, when it is overcast, radiation fog may persist.

01:11
GMDSS uses 4 coverage areas: A1, A2, A3 and A4. These areas together cover the sea areas of the world. Sea Area A1 is an area within Very High Frequency (VHF) range of a coast station fitted with Digital Selective Calling (DSC). This range is about 30 to 40 miles. Sea Area A2 is an area with Medium Frequency (MF) range of a coast station fitted with DSC. This range is about 150 miles. Sea Area A3 is an area covered by the Inmarsat Satellite System, excluding Sea Areas A1 and A2. Sea Area A4 is basically the polar regions that are not covered by the other Sea Areas.

01:28
Every Cardinal mark is named after the quadrant in which it is placed. Therefore, we have the North Cardinal mark, the East Cardinal mark, the South Cardinal mark, and the West Cardinal mark. The mariner is safe if he passes; north of the north mark, east of the east mark, south of the south mark, and west of the west mark. The North Cardinal mark has a shape of a pillar or spar, and is colored black above yellow. As a top mark it has two black cones, one above the other, with the points showing upward. The North Cardinal mark exhibits a white light with a rhythm of very quick flashing (approximately 100 or 120 flashes per minute), or quick flashing (approximately 50 or 60 flashes per minute).

01:10
Now plot the bearings one by one on the Nautical chart. First the bearing from -lighthouse A: Place the parallel ruler on the compass rose at the 045° degree line and transfer that line, passing from lighthouse A and crossing the course line. Then, the bearing from lighthouse B: Place the parallel ruler on the compass rose on the 090° degree line and transfer that line passing from lighthouse B and crossing the course line. Thirdly, the bearing from Island C: Place the parallel ruler on the compass rose on the 135° degree line and transfer that line passing from Island C and crossing the course line. Generally, when using three LOPs and due to small errors in the bearings, a triangle may form where they intercept. In this case the center of the triangle will be the fix position.

01:08
Lets have a closer look at all 4 stages. Appraisal is a gathering together of all information Navigational informationa on charts Information from publications Sailing directions, light lists, current atlas, Tidal atlas, tide tables and notices from mariners. It also includes meteorogical data. Details of the intended passage should include: currents dirrection and rate of set, tides times and heights and dirrection, draft of the boat. Radio aids to navigation, loran, availability, coverage and accuracy in each area. Navigational and meteorological warnings affecting the area. And last, local rules and regulations.

01:30
Make sure that you carry at least two anchors, one as an everyday anchor that is stowed at the bow in the anchor locker, and one as a storm anchor. The characteristics of the boat and the type of sea bed - sand, shale, mud, gravel - affect the type of anchor you should use. Commonly available anchors are: The Plough type anchor, which provides very high holding power by digging itself into sea bed sediments. The plough type is also effective on weedy sea beds. The Fluke type anchor, which provides very good holding power by burying itself into sea beds of sand or mud, but not so good in rocks or kelp. It is lightweight and can be stowed flat, but can be difficult to remove from mud. The Fisherman - type anchor, which has diamond-shaped flukes that makes the anchor function efficiently as a "rock pick". It must be large and heavy to be most effective and can penetrate and hold in weeds, gravel, or rocks. It folds flat for stowage.

00:53
Differential GPS (DGPS) works by placing a GPS receiver that is a reference station at a known location. The station measures the ranges to each satellite. Then it uses the measured ranges and the actual ranges calculated from its known position. Measured ranges can contain errors such as ephemeris data errors or internal receiver noise. The difference between measured and calculated ranges becomes a "differential correction". The differential correction is then transmitted to the DGPS receivers.

00:52
Cardinal marks indicate where the mariner may find navigable water. These marks are used in conjunction with a compass. Here we have four quadrants,: North, East, South, and West. The danger in the middle is the point of interest. From the point of interest we bound the north quadrant by the true bearings, NW-NE the east quadrant by the true bearings, NE-SE the south quadrant by the true bearings, SE-SW, and the west quadrant by the true bearings, SW-NW.

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