Home
Videos uploaded by user “The Audiopedia”
What is COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT? What does COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT mean?
 
02:50
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT? What does COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT mean? COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT meaning - COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT definition - COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. The United Nations defines community development as "a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems." It is a broad term given to the practices of civic leaders, activists, involved citizens and professionals to improve various aspects of communities, typically aiming to build stronger and more resilient local communities. Community development is also understood as a professional discipline, and is defined by the International Association for Community Development (www.iacdglobal.org), the global network of community development practitioners and scholars, as "a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes participative democracy, sustainable development, rights, economic opportunity, equality and social justice, through the organisation, education and empowerment of people within their communities, whether these be of locality, identity or interest, in urban and rural settings". Community development seeks to empower individuals and groups of people with the skills they need to effect change within their communities. These skills are often created through the formation of social groups working for a common agenda. Community developers must understand both how to work with individuals and how to affect communities' positions within the context of larger social institutions. Community development as a term has taken off widely in anglophone countries i.e. the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and New Zealand and other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations. It is also used in some countries in Eastern Europe with active community development associations in Hungary and Romania. The Community Development Journal, published by Oxford University Press, since 1966 has aimed to be the major forum for research and dissemination of international community development theory and practice. Community development approaches are recognised internationally. These methods and approaches have been acknowledged as significant for local social, economic, cultural, environmental and political development by such organisations as the UN, WHO, OECD, World Bank, Council of Europe and EU.
Views: 13906 The Audiopedia
What is ONCOLOGY? What does ONCOLOGY mean? ONCOLOGY meaning, definition, explanation & pronunciation
 
01:53
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is ONCOLOGY? What does ONCOLOGY mean? ONCOLOGY meaning - ONCOLOGY definition - ONCOLOGY explanation - ONCOLOGY pronunciation. Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist. The name's etymological origin is the Greek word ????? (ónkos), meaning "tumor", "volume" or "mass". The three components which have improved survival in cancer are: 1. Prevention - This is by reduction of risk factors like tobacco and alcohol consumption; 2. Early diagnosis - Screening of common cancers and comprehensive diagnosis and staging; and 3. Treatment - Multimodality management by discussion in tumour board and treatment in a comprehensive cancer centre Cancers are best managed through discussion on multi-disciplinary tumour boards where medical oncologist, surgical oncologist, radiation oncologist, pathologist, radiologist and organ specific oncologists meet to find the best possible management for an individual patient considering the physical, social, psychological, emotional and financial status of the patients. It is very important for oncologists to keep updated of the latest advancements in oncology, as changes in management of cancer are quite common. All eligible patients in whom cancer progresses and for whom no standard of care treatment options are available should be enrolled in a clinical trial.
Views: 19083 The Audiopedia
What is GOOD GOVERNANCE? What does GOOD GOVERNANCE mean? GOOD GOVERNANCE meaning & explanation
 
03:36
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is GOOD GOVERNANCE? What does GOOD GOVERNANCE mean? GOOD GOVERNANCE meaning - GOOD GOVERNANCE definition - GOOD GOVERNANCE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Good governance is an indeterminate term used in the international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources. Governance is "the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)". The term governance can apply to corporate, international, national, local governance or to the interactions between other sectors of society. The concept of "good governance" often emerges as a model to compare ineffective economies or political bodies with viable economies and political bodies. The concept centers on the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society. Because countries often described as "most successful" are Western liberal democratic states, concentrated in Europe and the Americas, good governance standards often measure other state institutions against these states. Aid organizations and the authorities of developed countries often will focus the meaning of "good governance" to a set of requirements that conform to the organization's agenda, making "good governance" imply many different things in many different contexts. According to Sam Agere, "The discretionary space left by the lack of a clear well-defined scope for what governance encompasses allows users to choose and set their own parameters." In the book Contesting 'good' governance, Eva Poluha and Mona Rosendahl contest standards that are common to western democracy as measures of "goodness" in government. By applying political anthropological methods, they conclude that while governments believe they apply concepts of good governance while making decisions, cultural differences can cause conflict with the heterogeneous standards of the international community. An additional source of good governance criticism is The Intelligent Person's Guide to Good Governance, written by Surendra Munshi. Munshi's work was created in order to "revive" good governance. Many individuals tend to either wave away and be bored with the idea of governance, or not have a clue to what it has at all. This book is a generalized discussion on what the purpose of good governance is and how it serves that purpose throughout our society. Munshi targets the book toward anyone doing research or just simply "those concerned with the issue of governance". Rethinking Systems: Configurations of Politics and Policy in Contemporary Governance, written by Micheal P. Crozier, is another work analyzing good governance. Crozier's article discusses the different dynamics of changes that occur throughout communication systems and the effect it has on governance. The idea of various perspectives is presented throughout the article. This allowed the reader to be able to see what contemporary governance is like through different pairs of eyes. Crozier's motive was to also create an open mindset when referring to how governance and policy within society operates, especially with the constant changes occurring day to day.
Views: 11465 The Audiopedia
What is CORPORATE LAWYER? What does CORPORATE LAWYER mean? CORPORATE LAWYER meaning
 
03:40
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is CORPORATE LAWYER? What does CORPORATE LAWYER mean? CORPORATE LAWYER meaning - CORPORATE LAWYER definition - CORPORATE LAWYER explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A corporate lawyer is a lawyer who specializes in corporations law. The role of a corporate lawyer is to ensure the legality of commercial transactions, advising corporations on their legal rights and duties, including the duties and responsibilities of corporate officers. In order to do this, they must have knowledge of aspects of contract law, tax law, accounting, securities law, bankruptcy, intellectual property rights, licensing, zoning laws, and the laws specific to the business of the corporations that they work for. In recent years, controversies involving well known companies such as, Walmart and General Motors have highlighted the complex role of corporate lawyers in internal investigations, in which attorney-client privilege could be considered to shelter potential wrongdoing by the company. If a corporate lawyer's internal company clients are not assured of confidentiality, they will be less likely to seek legal advice, but keeping confidences can shelter society's access to vital information. The practice of corporate law is less adversarial than that of trial law. Lawyers for both sides of a commercial transaction are less opponents than facilitators. One lawyer (quoted by Bernstein) characterizes them as "the handmaidens of the deal". Transactions take place amongst peers. There are rarely wronged parties, underdogs, or inequities in the financial means of the participants. Corporate lawyers structure those transactions, draft documents, review agreements, negotiate deals, and attend meetings. What areas of corporate law a corporate lawyer experiences depend from where the firm that he/she works for is, geographically, and how large it is. A small-town corporate lawyer in a small firm may deal in many short-term jobs such as drafting wills, divorce settlements, and real estate transactions, whereas a corporate lawyer in a large city firm may spend many months devoted to negotiating a single business transaction. Similarly, different firms may organize their subdivisions in different ways. Not all will include mergers and acquisitions under the umbrella of a corporate law division, for example. Some corporate lawyers become partners in their firms. Others become in-house counsel for corporations. Others still migrate into other professions such as investment banking and teaching law. Some publications read by those in the profession include Global Legal Studies, Lawyers Weekly, and the National Law Journal. The salary of a corporate lawyer can vary widely: those employed by major international law firms ("BigLaw" firms) earn starting salaries of USD 180,000, which rise every year with experience (this amount excludes any additional bonus payments). Depending on the geographical location, the starting salary may be closer to USD 160,000 if the market is secondary. Attorneys employed at smaller firms tend to earn smaller salaries.
Views: 21939 The Audiopedia
What is HUMAN SECURITY? What does HUMAN SECURITY mean? HUMAN SECURITY meaning & explanation
 
04:20
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is HUMAN SECURITY? What does HUMAN SECURITY mean? HUMAN SECURITY meaning - HUMAN SECURITY definition -HUMAN SECURITY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. Human security holds that a people-centred, multi-disciplinary understanding of security involving a number of research fields, including development studies, international relations, strategic studies, and human rights. The United Nations Development Programme's 1994 Human Development Report is considered a milestone publication in the field of human security, with its argument that insuring "freedom from want" and "freedom from fear" for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of global insecurity. Critics of the concept argue that its vagueness undermines its effectiveness, that it has become little more than a vehicle for activists wishing to promote certain causes, and that it does not help the research community understand what security means or help decision makers to formulate good policies. Alternatively, other scholars have argued that the concept of human security should be broadened to encompass military security: 'In other words, if this thing called ‘human security’ has the concept of ‘the human’ embedded at the heart of it, then let us address the question of the human condition directly. Thus understood, human security would no longer be the vague amorphous add-on to harder edged areas of security such as military security or state security.' In order for human security to challenge global inequalities, there has to be cooperation between a country’s foreign policy and its approach to global health. However, the interest of the state has continued to overshadow the interest of the people. For instance, Canada's foreign policy, "three Ds", has been criticized for emphasizing defense more than development. The emergence of the human security discourse was the product of a convergence of factors at the end of the Cold War. These challenged the dominance of the neorealist paradigm’s focus on states, “mutually assured destruction” and military security and briefly enabled a broader concept of security to emerge. The increasingly rapid pace of globalisation; the failure of liberal state building through the instruments of the Washington Consensus; the reduced threat of nuclear war between the superpowers, the exponential rise in the spread and consolidation of democratisation and international human rights norms opened a space in which both ‘development’ and concepts of ‘security’ could be reconsidered. At the same time the increasing number of internal violent conflicts in Africa, Asia and Europe (Balkans) resulted in concepts of national and international security failing to reflect the challenges of the post Cold War security environment whilst the failure of neoliberal development models to generate growth, particularly in Africa, or to deal with the consequences of complex new threats (such as HIV and climate change) reinforced the sense that international institutions and states were not organised to address such problems in an integrated way. The principal possible indicators of movement toward an individualized conception of security lie in the first place in the evolution of international society's consideration of rights of individuals in the face of potential threats from states. The most obvious foci of analysis here are the UN Charter, the UN Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and its associated covenants (1966), and conventions related to particular crimes (e.g.,genocide) and the rights of particular groups (e.g., women, racial groups, and refugees).
Views: 9758 The Audiopedia
What is YOUTH EMPOWERMENT? What does YOUTH EMPOWERMENT mean? YOUTH EMPOWERMENT meaning
 
02:01
What is YOUTH EMPOWERMENT? What does YOUTH EMPOWERMENT mean? YOUTH EMPOWERMENT meaning - YOUTH EMPOWERMENT definition - YOUTH EMPOWERMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Youth empowerment is a process where children and young people are encouraged to take charge of their lives. They do this by addressing their situation and then take action in order to improve their access to resources and transform their consciousness through their beliefs, values, and attitudes. Youth empowerment aims to improve quality of life. Youth empowerment is achieved through participation in youth empowerment programs. However scholars argue that children’s rights implementation should go beyond learning about formal rights and procedures to give birth to a concrete experience of rights. There are numerous models that youth empowerment programs use that help youth achieve empowerment. A variety of youth empowerment initiatives are underway around the world. These programs can be through non-profit organizations, government organizations, schools or private organizations. Youth empowerment is different than youth development because development is centered on developing individuals, while empowerment is focused on creating greater community change relies on the development of individual capacity. Empowerment movements, including youth empowerment, originate, gain momentum, become viable, and become institutionalized. Youth empowerment is often addressed as a gateway to intergenerational equity, civic engagement and democracy building. Activities may focus on youth-led media, youth rights, youth councils, youth activism, youth involvement in community decision-making, and other methods.
Views: 5256 The Audiopedia
What is STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM? What does STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM mean?
 
02:10
What is STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM? What does STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM mean? STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM meaning - STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM definition - STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A student exchange program is a program in which students from a secondary school or university study abroad at one of their institution's partner institutions. A student exchange program may involve international travel, but does not necessarily require the student to study outside of his or her home country. For example, the National Student Exchange program (NSE) offers placements throughout the United States and Canada. Foreign exchange programs provides students with an opportunity to study in a different country and environment experiencing the history and culture of another country. The term "exchange" means that a partner institution accepts a student, but does not necessarily mean that the students have to find a counterpart from the other institution with whom to exchange. Exchange students live with a host family or in a designated place such as a hostel, an apartment, or a student lodging. Costs for the program vary by the country and institution. Participants fund their participation via scholarships, loans, or self-funding. Student exchanges became popular after World War II, and are intended to increase the participants' understanding and tolerance of other cultures, as well as improving their language skills and broadening their social horizons. Student exchanges also increased further after the end of the Cold War. An exchange student typically stays in the host country for a period of 6 to 10 months. International students or those on study abroad programs may stay in the host country for several years. Some exchange programs also offer academic credit.
Views: 4821 The Audiopedia
What is SOCIAL WORK? What does SOCIAL WORK mean? SOCIAL WORK meaning, definition & explanation
 
04:33
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is SOCIAL WORK? What does SOCIAL WORK mean? SOCIAL WORK meaning - SOCIAL WORK definition - SOCIAL WORK explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Social Work is both an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with helping individuals, families, groups and communities enhance their social functioning and overall well-being. Social functioning refers to the way in which people perform their social roles, and the structural institutions that are provided to sustain them. Social work is underpinned by theories of social science and humanitites and guided by principles of social justice, rights, collective responsibility, and respect for diversity, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges, socioeconomic development, social cohesion and enhance well-being. Their engagement with client systems create changes and with communities they may bring about social change. Social work practice is often divided into micro-work, which involves working directly with individuals or small groups; and macro-work, which involves working communities, and within social policy, to create change on a larger scale. Social work as such began in the 20th century, with roots in voluntary philanthropy and grassroots organizing, but the practice of responding to social needs existed long before then, as evidenced primarily by a long history of private charities and religious organizations. The effects of the Industrial Revolution and the Great Depression developed and clarified popular understanding of social work into a conception of the field that mostly resembles the one that prevails today. Social work is a broad profession that intersects with several disciplines. However, although social work practice varies both through its various specialties and countries, these social work organizations offer the following definitions. “Social work is a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development, social cohesion, and the empowerment and liberation of people. Principles of social justice, human rights, collective responsibility and respect for diversities are central to social work. Underpinned by theories of social work, social sciences, humanities and indigenous knowledges, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance wellbeing." - International Federation of Social Workers "Social work is a profession concerned with helping individuals, families, groups and communities to enhance their individual and collective well-being. It aims to help people develop their skills and their ability to use their own resources and those of the community to resolve problems. Social work is concerned with individual and personal problems but also with broader social issues such as poverty, unemployment and domestic violence." - Canadian Association of Social Workers Social work practice consists of the professional application of social work values, principles, and techniques to one or more of the following ends: helping people obtain tangible services; counseling and psychotherapy with individuals, families, and groups; helping communities or groups provide or improve social and health services; and participating in legislative processes. The practice of social work requires knowledge of human development and behavior; of social and economic, and cultural institutions; and of the interaction of all these factors."- National Association of Social Workers "Social workers work with individuals and families to help improve outcomes in their lives. This may be helping to protect vulnerable people from harm or abuse or supporting people to live independently. Social workers support people, act as advocates and direct people to the services they may require. Social workers often work in multi-disciplinary teams alongside health and education professionals." - British Association of Social Workers.
Views: 21339 The Audiopedia
What is DEUTERIUM? What does DEUTERIUM mean? DEUTERIUM meaning, definition & explanation
 
03:30
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is DEUTERIUM? What does DEUTERIUM mean? DEUTERIUM meaning DEUTERIUM pronunciation - DEUTERIUM definition - DEUTERIUM explanation - How to pronounce DEUTERIUM? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Deuterium (symbol D or 2H, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen. The nucleus of deuterium, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, whereas the far more common hydrogen isotope, protium, has no neutron in the nucleus. Deuterium has a natural abundance in Earth's oceans of about one atom in 6420 of hydrogen. Thus deuterium accounts for approximately 0.0156% (or on a mass basis 0.0312%) of all the naturally occurring hydrogen in the oceans, while the most common isotope (hydrogen-1 or protium) accounts for more than 99.98%. The abundance of deuterium changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another (see Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). The deuterium isotope's name is formed from the Greek deuteros meaning "second", to denote the two particles composing the nucleus. Deuterium was discovered and named in 1931 by Harold Urey. When the neutron was discovered in 1932, this made the nuclear structure of deuterium obvious, and Urey won the Nobel Prize in 1934. Soon after deuterium's discovery, Urey and others produced samples of "heavy water" in which the deuterium content had been highly concentrated. Deuterium is destroyed in the interiors of stars faster than it is produced. Other natural processes are thought to produce only an insignificant amount of deuterium. Nearly all deuterium found in nature was produced in the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago, as the basic or primordial ratio of hydrogen-1 (protium) to deuterium (about 26 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogen atoms) has its origin from that time. This is the ratio found in the gas giant planets, such as Jupiter (see references 2,3 and 4). However, other astronomical bodies are found to have different ratios of deuterium to hydrogen-1. This is thought to be as a result of natural isotope separation processes that occur from solar heating of ices in comets. Like the water-cycle in Earth's weather, such heating processes may enrich deuterium with respect to protium. The analysis of deuterium/protium ratios in comets found results very similar to the mean ratio in Earth's oceans (156 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogens). This reinforces theories that much of Earth's ocean water is of cometary origin. The deuterium/protium ratio of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, as measured by the Rosetta space probe, is about three times that of earth water. This figure is the highest yet measured in a comet. Deuterium/protium ratios thus continue to be an active topic of research in both astronomy and climatology.
Views: 116655 The Audiopedia
What is ANALYTICAL SKILL? What does ANALYTICAL SKILL mean? ANALYTICAL SKILL meaning & explanation
 
01:54
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is ANALYTICAL SKILL? What does ANALYTICAL SKILL mean? ANALYTICAL SKILL meaning - ANALYTICAL SKILL definition - ANALYTICAL SKILL explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Analytical skill is the ability to visualize, articulate, conceptualize or solve both complex and uncomplicated problems by making decisions that are sensible given the available information. Such skills include demonstration of the ability to apply logical thinking to breaking complex problems into their component parts. In 1999, Richards J. Heuer Jr., explained that: "Thinking analytically is a skill like carpentry or driving a car. It can be taught, it can be learned, and it can improve with practice. But like many other skills, such as riding a bike, it is not learned by sitting in a classroom and being told how to do it. Analysts learn by doing." To test for analytical skills one might be asked to look for inconsistencies in an advertisement, put a series of events in the proper order, or critically read an essay. Usually standardized tests and interviews include an analytical section that requires the examiner to use their logic to pick apart a problem and come up with a solution. Although there is no question that analytical skills are essential, other skills are equally required. For instance in systems analysis the systems analyst should focus on four sets of analytical skills: systems thinking, organizational knowledge, problem identification, and problem analyzing and solving.
Views: 26803 The Audiopedia
What is INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW? What does INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW mean?
 
04:06
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW? What does INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW mean? INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW meaning - INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW definition -INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello). It is that branch of international law which seeks to limit the effects of armed conflict by protecting persons who are not participating in hostilities, and by restricting and regulating the means and methods of warfare available to combatants. IHL is inspired by considerations of humanity and the mitigation of human suffering. "It comprises a set of rules, established by treaty or custom, that seeks to protect persons and property/objects that are (or may be) affected by armed conflict and limits the rights of parties to a conflict to use methods and means of warfare of their choice". It includes "the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law." It defines the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations, and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning non-combatants. It is designed to balance humanitarian concerns and military necessity, and subjects warfare to the rule of law by limiting its destructive effect and mitigating human suffering. Serious violations of international humanitarian law are called war crimes. International humanitarian law, jus in bello, regulates the conduct of forces when engaged in war or armed conflict. It is distinct from jus ad bellum which regulates the conduct of engaging in war or armed conflict and includes crimes against peace and of war of aggression. Together the jus in bello and jus ad bellum comprise the two strands of the laws of war governing all aspects of international armed conflicts. The law is mandatory for nations bound by the appropriate treaties. There are also other customary unwritten rules of war, many of which were explored at the Nuremberg War Trials. By extension, they also define both the permissive rights of these powers as well as prohibitions on their conduct when dealing with irregular forces and non-signatories. International humanitarian law operates on a strict division between rules applicable in international armed conflict and internal armed conflict. This dichotomy is widely criticized. The relationship between international human rights law and international humanitarian law is disputed among international law scholars. This discussion forms part of a larger discussion on fragmentation of international law. While pluralist scholars conceive international human rights law as being distinct from international humanitarian law, proponents of the constitutionalist approach regard the latter as a subset of the former. In a nutshell, those who favors separate, self-contained regimes emphasize the differences in applicability; international humanitarian law applies only during armed conflict. On the other hand, a more systemic perspective explains that international humanitarian law represents a function of international human rights law; it includes general norms that apply to everyone at all time as well as specialized norms which apply to certain situations such as armed conflict and military occupation (i.e., IHL) or to certain groups of people including refugees (e.g., the 1951 Refugee Convention), children (the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child), and prisoners of war (the 1949 Third Geneva Convention).
Views: 14318 The Audiopedia
What is CULTURAL TOURISM? What does CULTURAL TOURISM mean? CULTURAL TOURISM meaning & explanation
 
04:05
What is CULTURAL TOURISM? What does CULTURAL TOURISM mean? CULTURAL TOURISM meaning - CULTURAL TOURISM definition - CULTURAL TOURISM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Cultural Tourism (or culture tourism) is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region's culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those people, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life. Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities such as museums and theatres. It can also include tourism in rural areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals), and their values and lifestyle, as well as niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. It is generally agreed that cultural tourists spend substantially more than standard tourists do. This form of tourism is also becoming generally more popular throughout the world, and a recent OECD report has highlighted the role that cultural tourism can play in regional development in different world regions. Cultural tourism has been defined as 'the movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather new information and experiences to satisfy their cultural needs'. These cultural needs can include the solidification of one's own cultural identity, by observing the exotic "other". Cultural tourism has a long history, and with its roots in the Grand Tour is arguably the original form of tourism. It is also one of the forms of tourism that most policy makers seem to be betting on for the future. The World Tourism Organisation, for example, asserted that cultural tourism accounted for 37% of global tourism, and forecast that it would grow at a rate of 15% per year. Such figures are often quoted in studies of the cultural tourism market (e.g. Bywater, 1993), but are rarely backed up with empirical research. A recent study of the cultural consumption habits of Europeans (European Commission 2002) indicated that people visited museums and galleries abroad almost as frequently as they did at home. This underlines the growing importance of cultural tourism as a source of cultural consumption. The generalisation of cultural consumption on holiday, however, points to one of the main problems of defining cultural tourism. What is the difference between cultural visits on holiday (cultural tourism) and cultural visits undertaken during leisure time at home? Much of the research undertaken by the Association for Leisure and Tourism Education (ATLAS) on the international cultural tourism market (Richards 1996; 2001) has in fact underlined the high degree of continuity between consumption of culture at home and on holiday. In spite of these problems, policy makers, tourist boards and cultural attraction managers around the world continue to view cultural tourism as an important potential source of tourism growth. There is a general perception that cultural tourism is ’good’ tourism that attracts high spending visitors and does little damage to the environment or local culture while contributing a great deal to the economy and support of culture. Other commentators, however, have suggested that cultural tourism may do more harm than good, allowing the cultural tourist to penetrate sensitive cultural environments as the advance guard of the mass tourist.
Views: 5674 The Audiopedia
What is EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION? What does EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION mean?
 
03:31
What is EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION? What does EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION mean? EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION meaning - EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION definition - EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Educational accreditation is a type of quality assurance process under which services and operations of educational institutions or programs are evaluated by an external body to determine if applicable standards are met. If standards are met, accredited status is granted by the appropriate agency. In most countries the function of educational accreditation is conducted by a government organization, such as a Ministry of Education. In the United States a quality assurance process exists that is independent of government and performed by private non-profit organizations. Those organizations are formally called accreditors. All accreditors in the US must in turn be recognized by the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity (NACIQI), which is an advisory body to the U.S. Secretary of Education, in order to receive federal funding and any other type of federal recognition. Therefore, the federal government is the principal architect and controlling authority of accreditation. The U.S. accreditation process was developed in the late 19th century and early 20th century after educational institutions perceived a need for improved coordination and articulation between secondary and post-secondary educational institutions, along with standardization of requirements between the two levels. Accreditation of higher education varies by jurisdiction and may be focused on either or both the institution or the individual programs of study. Higher education accreditation in the United States has long been established as a peer review process coordinated by accreditation commissions and member institutions. The federal government began to play a limited role in higher education accreditation in 1952 with the reauthorization of the GI Bill for Korean War veterans. With the creation of the U.S. Department of Education and under the terms of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, the U.S. Secretary of Education is required by law to publish a list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies for higher education. In the United States, there is no federal government list of recognized accreditation agencies for primary and secondary schools like there is for higher education. Public schools must adhere to criteria set by the state governments, and there is wide variation among the individual states in the requirements applied to non-public primary and secondary schools. There are six regional accreditors in the United States that have historically accredited elementary schools, junior high schools, middle schools, high schools, as well as institutions of higher education. Some of the regional accreditors, such as AdvancED, and some independent associations, such as the Association of Christian Schools International, have expanded their accreditation activity to include schools outside of the United States.
Views: 1951 The Audiopedia
What is ROMANCE SCAM? What does ROMANCE SCAM mean? ROMANCE SCAM meaning, definition & explanation
 
10:45
What is ROMANCE SCAM? What does ROMANCE SCAM mean? ROMANCE SCAM meaning - ROMANCE SCAM definition - ROMANCE SCAM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A romance scam is a confidence trick involving feigned romantic intentions towards a victim, gaining their affection, and then using that goodwill to commit fraud. Fraudulent acts may involve access to the victims' money, bank accounts, credit cards, passports, e-mail accounts, or national identification numbers or by getting the victims to commit financial fraud on their behalf. Scammers post profiles, using stolen photographs of attractive people, asking for others to contact them. This is often known as catfishing. Letters are exchanged between the scammer and victim until the scammer feels they have groomed the victim enough to ask for money. This might be for requests for gas money or bus and airplane tickets to travel to visit the victim, medical expenses, education expenses etc. There is usually the promise that the fictitious character will one day join the victim in the victim's country. The scam usually ends when the victim realizes they are being scammed or stops sending money. Victims can be highly traumatized by this and are often very embarrassed and ashamed when they learn they have become a victim of a scam and that the romance was a farce. In some cases, online dating services are themselves engaged in misrepresentation, displaying profiles which have been fabricated, which use personal information from users who have not agreed to be depicted on the site or by presenting outdated or out-of-region profiles as current and local. Scammers post profiles on dating websites, social accounts, classified sites and even forums to groom new victims. Upon finding victims, scammers lure them to more private means of communication, (such as providing an e-mail address) to allow for fraud to occur. The fraud typically involves the scammer acting as if they've quickly fallen for the victim so that when they have the opportunity to ask for money, the victim at that time has become too emotionally involved, and will have deep feelings of guilt if they decline the request for money from the scammer. Narratives used to extract money from the victims of romantic scams include the following: The scammer says their boss paid them in postal money orders. The scammer wants the victim to cash the money orders, and then wire money to the scammer. The forged money orders leave the banks to incur debts against the victims. The scammer says they need the victim to send money to pay for a passport. The scammer says they require money for flights to the victim's country because of being left there by a step-parent, or husband/wife, or because they are just tired of living in their country and somehow never comes, or says that they are being held against their will by immigration authorities, who demand bribes. The scammer says they have had gold bars or other valuables seized by customs and need to pay taxes to before they can recover them before joining the victim in his/her country The scammer meets the victim on an online dating site, lives in a foreign country, falls in love, but needs money to join the victim in his/her country The scammer says they are being held against their will for failure to pay a bill or requires money for hospital bills. The scammer says they need the money to pay for the phone bills in order to continue communicating with the victim. The scammer says they need the money for their or their parents' urgent medical treatment. ....
Views: 2527 The Audiopedia
What is PANEL DISCUSSION? What does PANEL DISCUSSION mean? PANEL DISCUSSION meaning & explanation
 
02:23
BROWSE The Internet EASY way with The Audiopedia owned Lightina Browser Android app! INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.LightinaBrowser_8083351 What is PANEL DISCUSSION? What does PANEL DISCUSSION mean? PANEL DISCUSSION meaning - PANEL DISCUSSION definition - PANEL DISCUSSION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A panel discussion, or simply a panel, involves a group of people gathered to discuss a topic in front of an audience, typically at scientific, business or academic conferences, fan conventions, and on television shows. Panels usually include a moderator who guides the discussion and sometimes elicits audience questions, with the goal of being informative and entertaining. Film panels at fan conventions have been credited with boosting box office returns by generating advance buzz. The typical format for a discussion panel includes a moderator in front of an audience. Television shows in the English-speaking world that feature a discussion panel format include Real Time with Bill Maher, Loose Women,The Nightly Show with Larry Wilmore, as well as segments of the long-running Meet the Press. Quiz shows featuring this format, such as QI and Never Mind the Buzzcocks, are called panel games. Panels at sci-fi fan conventions, such as San Diego Comic-Con and New York Comic-Con, have become increasingly popular; there are typically long lines to get access to the panels. The panels often feature advance looks at upcoming films and video games. Panels and the early screenings at conventions have been credited as increasing the popularity of blockbuster films in recent years. One of the earliest film panels was at the 1976 San Diego Comic-Con, when publicist Charles Lippincott hosted a slideshow—in front of a "somewhat skeptical" audience—for an upcoming film called Star Wars. Five years later, the Blade Runner panel at the 1981 San Diego Comic-Con featured a film featurette, before featurettes were popular. At the 2000 event, the The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring preview panel ushered in today's era of hugely popular panels.
Views: 10742 The Audiopedia
What is VOCATIONAL EDUCATION? What does VOCATIONAL EDUCATION mean? VOCATIONAL EDUCATION meaning
 
01:39
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is VOCATIONAL EDUCATION? What does VOCATIONAL EDUCATION mean? VOCATIONAL EDUCATION meaning - VOCATIONAL EDUCATION definition - VOCATIONAL EDUCATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in a trade, a craft, as a technician, or in support roles in professions such as engineering, accountancy, nursing, medicine, architecture, or law. Craft vocations are usually based on manual or practical activities and are traditionally non-academic but related to a specific trade or occupation. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as career education or technical education. Vocational education can take place at the secondary, post-secondary, further education, and higher education level; and can interact with the apprenticeship system. At the post-secondary level, vocational education is often provided by highly specialized trade and Technical schools. Until recently, almost all vocational education took place in the classroom, or on the job site, with students learning trade skills and trade theory from accredited professors or established professionals. However, online vocational education has grown in popularity, and made it easier than ever for students to learn various trade skills and soft skills from established professionals in the industry.
Views: 38770 The Audiopedia
What is PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION? What does PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION mean?
 
02:30
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION? What does PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION mean? PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION meaning - PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION definition - PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal... is to advance management and policies so that government can function." Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies." Public administration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct" Many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, county, regional, state and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resources (H.R.) administrators, city managers, census managers, state mental health directors, and cabinet secretaries. Public administrators are public servants working in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government. In the US, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted American civil service reform in the 1880s, moving public administration into academia. However, "until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber's theory of bureaucracy" there was not "much interest in a theory of public administration." The field is multidisciplinary in character; one of the various proposals for public administration's sub-fields sets out six pillars, including human resources, organizational theory, policy analysis and statistics, budgeting, and ethics.
Views: 47364 The Audiopedia
What is CREOLIZATION? What does CREOLIZATION mean? CREOLIZATION meaning & explanation
 
05:18
What is CREOLIZATION? What does CREOLIZATION mean? CREOLIZATION meaning - CREOLIZATION pronunciation - CREOLIZATION definition - CREOLIZATION explanation - How to pronounce CREOLIZATION? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Creolization is the process in which Creole cultures emerge in the New World. As a result of colonization there was a mixture among people of indigenous, African, and European descent, which came to be understood as Creolization. Creolization is traditionally used to refer to the Caribbean; although not exclusive to the Caribbean it can be further extended to represent other diasporas. The mixing of people brought a cultural mixing which ultimately led to the formation of new identities. It is important to emphasize that creolization also is the mixing of the "old" and "traditional" with the "new" and "modern". Furthermore, creolization occurs when participants actively select cultural elements that may become part of or inherited culture. Robin Cohen states that creolization is a condition in which "the formation of new identities and inherited culture evolve to become different from those they possessed in the original cultures," and then creatively merge these to create new varieties that supersede the prior forms. According to Charles Stewart the concept of creolization originates during the 16th century, although, there is no date recording the beginning of the word creolization. The term creolization was understood to be a distinction between those individuals born in the "Old World" versus the New World. As consequence to slavery and the different power relations between different races creolization became synonymous with Creole, often of which was used to distinguish the master and the slave. The word Creole was also used to distinguish those Afro-descendants who were born in the New World in comparison to African-born slaves. The word creolization has evolved and changed to have different meaning at different times in history. What has not changed through the course of time is the context in which Creole has been used. It has been associated with cultural mixtures of African, European, and indigenous (in addition to other lineages in different locations) ancestry (e.g. Caribbeans). Creole has pertained to "African-diasporic geographical and historical specificity". With globalization, creolization has undergone a "remapping of worlds regions", or as Orlando Patterson would explain, "the creation of wholly new cultural forms in the transnational space, such as 'New Yorican' and Miami Spanish". Today, creolization refers to this mixture of different people and different cultures that merge to become one. Creolization as a relational process can enable new forms of identity formation and processes of communal enrichment through pacific intermixtures and aggregations, but its uneven dynamics remain a factor to consider whether in the context of colonization or globalization. The meeting points of multiple diasporas and the crossing and intersection of diasporas are sites of new creolizations. New sites of creolizations continue the ongoing ethics of the sharing of the world that has now become a global discourse which is rooted in English and French Caribbean. The cultural fusion and hybridization of new diasporas surfaces and creates new forms of creolization. There are different processes of creolization have shaped and reshaped the different forms of one culture. For example, food, music, and religion have been impacted by the creolization of today's world. Creolization has affected the elements and traditions of food. The blend of cooking that describes the mixture of African and French elements in the American South, particularly in Louisiana, and in the French Caribbean have been influenced by creolization. This mixture has led to the unique combination of cultures that led to cuisine of creolization, better known as creole cooking. These very creations of difference flavors particularly pertains to specific territory which is influenced by different histories and experiences.
Views: 2065 The Audiopedia
What is BRAND AMBASSADOR? What does BRAND AMBASSADOR mean? BRAND AMBASSADOR meaning & explanation
 
02:42
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is BRAND AMBASSADOR? What does BRAND AMBASSADOR mean? BRAND AMBASSADOR meaning - BRAND AMBASSADOR definition - BRAND AMBASSADOR explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A Brand Ambassador (sometimes also called a Corporate Ambassador) is a person who is hired by an organization or company to represent a brand in a positive light and by doing so help to increase brand awareness and sales. The brand ambassador is meant to embody the corporate identity in appearance, demeanor, values and ethics. The key element of brand ambassadors is their ability to use promotional strategies that will strengthen the customer-product-service relationship and influence a large audience to buy and consume more. Predominantly, a brand ambassador is known as a positive spokesperson, an opinion leader or a community influencer, appointed as an internal or external agent to boost product or service sales and create brand awareness. Today, brand ambassador as a term has expanded beyond celebrity branding to self-branding or personal brand management. Professional figures such as good-will and non-profit ambassadors, promotional models, testimonials and brand advocates have formed as an extension of the same concept, taking into account the requirements of every company. The term brand ambassador loosely refers to a commodity which covers all types of event staff, varying between trade show hosts, in store promotional members and street teams. According to Brain, the job of a brand ambassador was undertaken typically by a celebrity or someone of a well-known presence, who was often paid considerably for their time and effort. Nowadays however, a brand ambassador can be anyone who has knowledge or can identify certain needs a brand is seeking. The fashion industry however, solely rely on celebrity clientele in order to remain brand ambassadors. Furthermore, brand ambassadors are considered to be the key salesperson for a product or service on offer. They must remain well informed when it comes to the brand they are representing, due to their nature of being the go-to person when questions arise from consumers. The brand ambassador's job is to drive results through communication tools either publicly, such as social media, or privately including emails, messaging and further one-to-one channels.
Views: 24473 The Audiopedia
What is ENTREPRENEURSHIP? What does ENTREPRENEURSHIP mean? ENTREPRENEURSHIP meaning
 
05:44
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is ENTREPRENEURSHIP? What does ENTREPRENEURSHIP mean? ENTREPRENEURSHIP meaning - ENTREPRENEURSHIP pronunciation - ENTREPRENEURSHIP definition - ENTREPRENEURSHIP explanation - How to pronounce ENTREPRENEURSHIP? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Entrepreneurship has traditionally been defined as the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which typically begins as a small business, such as a startup company, offering a product, process or service for sale or hire. It has been defined as the "...capacity and willingness to develop, organize, and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit." While definitions of entrepreneurship typically focus on the launching and running of businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching a start-up, a significant proportion of businesses have to close, due to a "...lack of funding, bad business decisions, an economic crisis -- or a combination of all of these" or due to lack of market demand. In the 2000s, the definition of "entrepreneurship" has been expanded to explain how and why some individuals (or teams) identify opportunities, evaluate them as viable, and then decide to exploit them, whereas others do not, and, in turn, how entrepreneurs use these opportunities to develop new products or services, launch new firms or even new industries and create wealth. Traditionally, an entrepreneur has been defined as "a person who organizes and manages any enterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk". Rather than working as an employee, an entrepreneur runs a small business and assumes all the risk and reward of a given business venture, idea, or good or service offered for sale. The entrepreneur is commonly seen as a business leader and innovator of new ideas and business processes." Entrepreneurs tend to be good at perceiving new business opportunities and they often exhibit positive biases in their perception (i.e., a bias towards finding new possibilities and seeing unmet market needs) and a pro-risk-taking attitude that makes them more likely to exploit the opportunity."Entrepreneurial spirit is characterized by innovation and risk-taking." While entrepreneurship is often associated with new, small, for-profit start-ups, entrepreneurial behavior can be seen in small-, medium- and large-sized firms, new and established firms and in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, including voluntary sector groups, charitable organizations and government. For example, in the 2000s, the field of social entrepreneurship has been identified, in which entrepreneurs combine business activities with humanitarian, environmental or community goals. An entrepreneur is typically in control of a commercial undertaking, directing the factors of production–the human, financial and material resources–that are required to exploit a business opportunity. They act as the manager and oversee the launch and growth of an enterprise. Entrepreneurship is the process by which an individual (or team) identifies a business opportunity and acquires and deploys the necessary resources required for its exploitation. The exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities may include actions such as developing a business plan, hiring the human resources, acquiring financial and material resources, providing leadership, and being responsible for the venture's success or failure. Economist Joseph Schumpeter (1883–1950) stated that the role of the entrepreneur in the economy is "creative destruction"–launching innovations that simultaneously destroy old industries while ushering in new industries and approaches. For Schumpeter, the changes and "dynamic disequilibrium brought on by the innovating entrepreneur ... the ‘norm’ of a healthy economy."
Views: 64519 The Audiopedia
What is HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT? What does HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT mean?
 
04:48
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT? What does HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT mean? HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT meaning - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT definition - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Human resource management (HRM or simply HR) is the management of human resources. It is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives. HR is primarily concerned with the management of people within organizations, focusing on policies and on systems. HR departments are responsible for overseeing employee benefits design, employee recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, and rewarding (e.g., managing pay and benefit systems). HR also concerns itself with organizational change and industrial relations, that is, the balancing of organizational practices with requirements arising from collective bargaining and from governmental laws. HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th century, when researchers began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the workforce. It was initially dominated by transactional work, such as payroll and benefits administration, but due to globalization, company consolidation, technological advances, and further research, HR as of 2015 focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitions, talent management, succession planning, industrial and labor relations, and diversity and inclusion. Human Resources is a business field focused on maximizing employee productivity. Human Resources professionals manage the human capital of an organization and focus on implementing policies and processes. They can be specialists focusing in on recruiting, training, employee relations or benefits. Recruiting specialists are in charge of finding and hiring top talent. Training and development professionals ensure that employees are trained and have continuous development. This is done through training programs, performance evaluations and reward programs. Employee relations deals with concerns of employees when policies are broken, such as harassment or discrimination. Someone in benefits develops compensation structures, family leave programs, discounts and other benefits that employees can get. On the other side of the field are Human Resources Generalists or Business Partners. These human resources professionals could work in all areas or be labor relations representatives working with unionized employees. In startup companies, trained professionals may perform HR duties. In larger companies, an entire functional group is typically dedicated to the discipline, with staff specializing in various HR tasks and functional leadership engaging in strategic decision-making across the business. To train practitioners for the profession, institutions of higher education, professional associations, and companies themselves have established programs of study dedicated explicitly to the duties of the function. Academic and practitioner organizations may produce field-specific publications. HR is also a field of research study that is popular within the fields of management and industrial/organizational psychology, with research articles appearing in a number of academic journals, including those mentioned later in this article. Businesses are moving globally and forming more diverse teams. It is the role of human resources to make sure that these teams can function and people are able to communicate cross culturally and across borders. Due to changes in business, current topics in human resources are diversity and inclusion as well as using technology to advance employee engagement. In the current global work environment, most companies focus on lowering employee turnover and on retaining the talent and knowledge held by their workforce. New hiring not only entails a high cost but also increases the risk of a newcomer not being able to replace the person who worked in a position before. HR departments strive to offer benefits that will appeal to workers, thus reducing the risk of losing corporate knowledge.
Views: 58059 The Audiopedia
What is INTERNAL AUDIT? What does INTERNAL AUDIT mean? INTERNAL AUDIT meaning & explanation
 
03:29
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is INTERNAL AUDIT? What does INTERNAL AUDIT mean? INTERNAL AUDIT meaning - INTERNAL AUDIT definition - INTERNAL AUDIT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organization's operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes. Internal auditing is a catalyst for improving an organization's governance, risk management and management controls by providing insight and recommendations based on analyses and assessments of data and business processes. With commitment to integrity and accountability, internal auditing provides value to governing bodies and senior management as an objective source of independent advice. Professionals called internal auditors are employed by organizations to perform the internal auditing activity. The scope of internal auditing within an organization is broad and may involve topics such as an organization's governance, risk management and management controls over: efficiency/effectiveness of operations (including safeguarding of assets), the reliability of financial and management reporting, and compliance with laws and regulations. Internal auditing may also involve conducting proactive fraud audits to identify potentially fraudulent acts; participating in fraud investigations under the direction of fraud investigation professionals, and conducting post investigation fraud audits to identify control breakdowns and establish financial loss. Internal auditors are not responsible for the execution of company activities; they advise management and the Board of Directors (or similar oversight body) regarding how to better execute their responsibilities. As a result of their broad scope of involvement, internal auditors may have a variety of higher educational and professional backgrounds. The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) is the recognized international standard setting body for the internal audit profession and awards the Certified Internal Auditor designation internationally through rigorous written examination. Other designations are available in certain countries. In the United States the professional standards of the Institute of Internal Auditors have been codified in several states' statutes pertaining to the practice of internal auditing in government (New York State, Texas, and Florida being three examples). There are also a number of other international standard setting bodies. Internal auditors work for government agencies (federal, state and local); for publicly traded companies; and for non-profit companies across all industries. Internal auditing departments are led by a Chief Audit Executive ("CAE") who generally reports to the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors, with administrative reporting to the Chief Executive Officer (In the United States this reporting relationship is required by law for publicly traded companies).
Views: 42269 The Audiopedia
What is CROP SIMULATION MODEL? What does CROP SIMULATION MODEL mean?
 
01:56
What is CROP SIMULATION MODEL? What does CROP SIMULATION MODEL mean? CROP SIMULATION MODEL meaning - CROP SIMULATION MODEL definition - CROP SIMULATION MODEL explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A Crop Simulation Model (CSM) is a simulation model that helps estimate crop yield as a function of weather conditions, soil conditions, and choice of crop management practices. Crop simulation models have been classified into three broad categories: Statistical models: These typically rely on yield information for large areas (such as counties), and identify broad trends. The two main trends identified are a secular trend of a gradual increase in crop yield, and variation based on weather conditions. Statistical models are a significant improvement over naive historical predictions, but are not preferred for very fine-grained predictions. Mechanistic models: These attempt to use fundamental mechanisms of plant and soil processes to simulate specific outcomes. These involve fairly detailed and computation-intensive simulations. These models use a continuous evolution and simulating them previously requires a small time step. Functional models: These use simplified closed functional forms to simulate complex processes. They are computationally easier than mechanistic models, and can often give results that are of only somewhat worse accuracy. The Penman equation is an example of an equation that might be used as a component of a functional model. Functional models are typically run using a daily time step and the data is updated daily.
Views: 2057 The Audiopedia
What is INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION? What does INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION mean?
 
02:24
What is INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION? What does INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION mean? INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION meaning - INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION definition - INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence. There are two main types: 1. International nongovernmental organizations (I NGOs): non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that operate internationally. These include international non-profit organizations and worldwide companies such as the World Organization of the Scout Movement, International Committee of the Red Cross and Médecins Sans Frontieres. 2. Intergovernmental organizations, also known as international governmental organizations (IGO,s): the type of organization most closely associated with the term 'international organization', these are organizations that are made up primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states). Notable examples include the United Nations (UN), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Council of Europe (COE), International Labour Organization (ILO), World Trade Organization (WTO) & World Health Organization (WHO). The UN has used the term "intergovernmental organization" instead of "international organization" for clarity. The first and oldest intergovernmental organization is the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna. The role of international organizations are helping to set the international agenda, mediating political bargaining, providing place for political initiatives and acting as catalysts for coalition- formation. International organizations also define the salient issues and decide which issues can be grouped together, thus help governmental priority determination or other governmental arrangements.
Views: 6922 The Audiopedia
What is CLINICAL NURSE LEADER? What does CLINICAL NURSE LEADER mean? CLINICAL NURSE LEADER meaning
 
03:26
What is CLINICAL NURSE LEADER? What does CLINICAL NURSE LEADER mean? CLINICAL NURSE LEADER meaning - CLINICAL NURSE LEADER definition - CLINICAL NURSE LEADER explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) is a relatively new nursing role that was developed in the United States to prepare highly skilled nurses focused on the improvement of quality and safety outcomes for patients or patient populations. The CNL is a registered nurse, with a Master of Science in Nursing who has completed advanced nursing coursework, including classes in pathophysiology, clinical assessment, finance management, epidemiology, healthcare systems leadership, clinical informatics, and pharmacology. CNLs are healthcare systems specialists that oversee patient care coordination, assess health risks, develop quality improvement strategies, facilitate team communication, and implement evidence-based solutions at the unit (microsystem) level. CNLs often work with clinical nurse specialists to help plan and coordinate complex patient care. The American Association of the Colleges of Nursing (AACN) delineates revised and updated competencies, curriculum development, and required clinical experiences expected of every graduate of a CNL master's education program, along with the minimum set of clinical experiences required to attain the end of program competencies. The Commission on Nurse Certification (CNC), an autonomous arm of the AACN, provides certification for the Clinical Nurse Leader. The AACN, along with nurse executives and nurse educators designed the Clinical Nurse Leader role (the first new role in nursing in 35 years) in response to the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) comprehensive report on medical errors, To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System, released in November 1999. The report, extrapolating data from two previous studies, estimates that somewhere between 44,000 and 98,000 Americans die each year as a result of medical errors. Joint participation by education and practice leaders was instrumental in the successful creation of the CNL role. Among stakeholders joining the AACN on the Implementation Task Force (ITF) were the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE) and the Department of Veteran Affairs (DVA). Within the healthcare system, the need for nurses with the skill and knowledge set of the CNL had already been identified and nurses were completing both academic and clinical work without receiving recognition for the advanced competencies being acquired. The first CNL certification exam was held in April and May 2007. In July 2007, AACN Board of Directors approved the revised white paper on the Education and Role of the Clinical Nurse Leader. Currently, 2500 CNLs have been certified and are able to use the credential and title of CNL.
Views: 1700 The Audiopedia
What is DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY? What does DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY mean?
 
03:40
What is DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY? What does DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY mean? DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY meaning - DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY definition - DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments. Developmental disabilities cause individuals living with them many difficulties in certain areas of life, especially in "language, mobility, learning, self-help, and independent living". Developmental disabilities can be detected early on, and do persist throughout an individual's lifespan. Developmental disability that affects all areas of a child's development is sometimes referred to as global developmental delay. Most common developmental disabilities: - Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is thought to cause autism and intellectual disability, usually among boys. - Down syndrome is a condition in which people are born with an extra copy of chromosome 21. Normally, a person is born with two copies of chromosome 21. However, if they are born with Down syndrome, they have an extra copy of this chromosome. This extra copy affects the development of the body and brain, causing physical and mental challenges for the individual. - Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. - Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. FASDs are 100% preventable if a woman does not drink alcohol during pregnancy. - Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person’s ability to move and maintain balance and posture. CP is the most common motor disability in childhood. - Intellectual disability, also (sometimes proscriptively) known as mental retardation, is defined as an IQ below 70 along with limitations in adaptive functioning and onset before the age of 18 years. The causes of developmental disabilities are varied and remain unknown in a large proportion of cases. Even in cases of known etiology the line between "cause" and "effect" is not always clear, leading to difficulty in categorizing causes. Genetic factors have long been implicated in the causation of developmental disabilities. There is also a large environmental component to these conditions, and the relative contributions of nature versus nurture have been debated for decades. Current theories on causation focus on genetic factors, and over 1,000 known genetic conditions include developmental disabilities as a symptom. Developmental disabilities affect between 1 and 2% of the population in most western countries, although many government sources acknowledge that statistics are flawed in this area. The worldwide proportion of people with developmental disabilities is believed to be approximately 1.4%. It is twice as common in males as in females, and some researchers have found that the prevalence of mild developmental disabilities is likely to be higher in areas of poverty and deprivation, and among people of certain ethnicities.
Views: 4648 The Audiopedia
What is ALUMNI ASSOCIATION? What does ALUMNI ASSOCIATION mean? ALUMNI ASSOCIATION meaning
 
02:11
What is ALUMNI ASSOCIATION? What does ALUMNI ASSOCIATION mean? ALUMNI ASSOCIATION meaning - ALUMNI ASSOCIATION definition - ALUMNI ASSOCIATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ An alumni association is an association of graduates or, more broadly, of former students (alumni). In the United Kingdom and the United States, alumni of universities, colleges, schools (especially independent schools), fraternities, and sororities often form groups with alumni from the same organization. These associations often organize social events, publish newsletters or magazines, and raise funds for the organization. Many provide a variety of benefits and services that help alumni maintain connections to their educational institution and fellow graduates. In the US, most associations do not require its members to be an alumnus of a university to enjoy membership and privileges. Additionally, such groups often support new alumni, and provide a forum to form new friendships and business relationships with people of similar background. Alumni associations are mainly organized around universities or departments of universities, but may also be organized among students that studied in a certain country. In the past, they were often considered to be the university's or school's old boy society (or old boys network). Today, alumni associations involve graduates of all age groups and demographics. Alumni associations are often organized into chapters by city, region, or country. Alumni associations can also include associations of former employees of a business. An alumnus of a company is a person who was formerly employed by it. These associations are growing in popularity and becoming an important part of a personal business network.
Views: 3356 The Audiopedia
What is DISABILITY TAX CREDIT? What does DISABILITY TAX CREDIT mean? DISABILITY TAX CREDIT meaning
 
04:51
What is DISABILITY TAX CREDIT? What does DISABILITY TAX CREDIT mean? DISABILITY TAX CREDIT meaning - DISABILITY TAX CREDIT definition - DISABILITY TAX CREDIT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ The Disability Tax Credit (DTC) is a non-refundable tax credit in Canada for individuals who have a severe and prolonged impairment in physical or mental function. An impairment qualifies as prolonged if it is expected to or has lasted at least 12 months. The DTC is required in order to qualify for the Registered Disability Savings Plan , the working income tax benefit, and the child disability benefit. Families using a Henson trust, the Canada Disability Child Benefit other estate planning methods for children with Disabilities are not excluded from the DTC and should consider whether they qualify. The individual must be "markedly restricted" in at least one of the following categories: speaking, hearing, walking, elimination (bowel or bladder functions), feeding, dressing, performing the mental functions of everyday life, life-sustaining therapy to support vital function and the recently introduced cumulative effects of significant restrictions. The degree of disability must be approved by Canada Revenue Agency before it can be used, and this process requires the completion and submission of a form. The T2201 Disability Tax Credit Certificate form must be completed by a qualified professional related to the impairment such as a medical doctor, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, psychologist, audiologist, or optometrist, in order to qualify as having a severe and prolonged impairment. The practitioner must certify on the T2201 form that the impairment meets specific conditions within the set category. The conditions vary depending on impairment. A document released by the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) in response to suggestions they made to the House of Commons Sub-Committee on the Status of Persons with Disabilities, attempts to assist medical professionals with deciphering what qualifies as being markedly restricted in the "mental functions necessary for everyday life". In 2005, the CRA introduced a new category of eligibility, "cumulative effect of significant restrictions". This category is useful for individuals who are disabled but not restricted enough to qualify as being markedly restricted. Since this was introduced in 2005,an applicant may only be able to recapture funds since that point. An applicant can file for the disability amount, back 10 years, due to the Tax Payer Relief Provisions in the Income Tax Act. The DTC amounts to C$7,687 (According to line 316) in tax savings, and if filed for the full 10 year period the possible tax savings are excess of 30,000. The DTC can be found on line 316 (for self) and line 318 (transferred to a supporting relative). If the medical practitioner charges to complete the T2201 form, applicants can claim this as a medical expense on line 330 of his/her tax return. In addition to lowering taxes, qualifying for tax credits can also be a requirement for applying for other money-saving vehicles such as the Registered Disability Savings Plan. If the person with the impairment does not have a taxable income, he/she can transfer credits to a supporting relative such as a parent, grandparent, child, sibling, grandchild, aunt, uncle, niece, or nephew. The disability amount can be transferred in either its entirety or as the remainder of what the dependent was unable to claim himself or herself. An Association of Canadian Disability Benefit Professionals was created to represent and serve a network of organizations that assist clients in registering for the disability tax credit, registered disability savings plan and other disability tax benefits. It was created by the twelve organizations specializing in this field including the biggest, the National Benefit Authority, they all committed to ACDBP Code of Conduct. The Association advocates on behalf of its members for policy and program efficiency at the federal and provincial level.
Views: 1874 The Audiopedia
What is URBAN DESIGN? What does URBAN DESIGN mean? URBAN DESIGN meaning, definition & explanation
 
03:09
What is URBAN DESIGN? What does URBAN DESIGN mean? URBAN DESIGN meaning - URBAN DESIGN definition - URBAN DESIGN explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Urban design is the process of designing and shaping cities, towns and villages. In contrast to architecture, which focuses on the design of individual buildings, urban design deals with the larger scale of groups of buildings, streets and public spaces, whole neighborhoods and districts, and entire cities, with the goal of making urban areas functional, attractive, and sustainable. Urban design is an inter-disciplinary subject that utilizes elements of many built environment professions, including landscape architecture, urban planning, architecture, civil and municipal engineering. It is common for professionals in all these disciplines to practice in urban design. In more recent times different sub-strands of urban design have emerged such as strategic urban design, landscape urbanism, water-sensitive urban design, and sustainable urbanism. Urban design demands a good understanding of a wide range of subjects from physical geography, through to social science, and an appreciation for disciplines, such as real estate development, urban economics, political economy and social theory. Urban design is about making connections between people and places, movement and urban form, nature and the built fabric. Urban design draws together the many strands of place-making, environmental stewardship, social equity and economic viability into the creation of places with distinct beauty and identity. Urban design draws these and other strands together creating a vision for an area and then deploying the resources and skills needed to bring the vision to life. Urban design theory deals primarily with the design and management of public space (i.e. the 'public environment', 'public realm' or 'public domain'), and the way public places are experienced and used. Public space includes the totality of spaces used freely on a day-to-day basis by the general public, such as streets, plazas, parks and public infrastructure. Some aspects of privately owned spaces, such as building facades or domestic gardens, also contribute to public space and are therefore also considered by urban design theory. Important writers on urban design theory include Christopher Alexander, Peter Calthorpe, Gordon Cullen, Andres Duany, Jane Jacobs, Mitchell Joachim, Jan Gehl, Allan B. Jacobs, Kevin Lynch, Aldo Rossi, Colin Rowe, Robert Venturi, William H. Whyte, Camillo Sitte, Bill Hillier (Space syntax), Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk and Kelvin Campbell.
Views: 5533 The Audiopedia
What is INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION? What does INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION mean?
 
06:04
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION? What does INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION mean? INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION meaning - INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION definition - INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Intercultural communication is a form of communication that aims to share information across different cultures and social groups. It is used to describe the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals from different religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds. Intercultural communication is sometimes used synonymously with cross-cultural communication. In this sense it seeks to understand how people from different countries and cultures act, communicate and perceive the world around them. Many people in intercultural business communication argue that culture determines how individuals encode messages, what medium they choose for transmitting them, and the way messages are interpreted. With regard to intercultural communication proper, it studies situations where people from different cultural backgrounds interact. Aside from language, intercultural communication focuses on social attributes, thought patterns, and the cultures of different groups of people. It also involves understanding the different cultures, languages and customs of people from other countries. Intercultural communication plays a role in social sciences such as anthropology, cultural studies, linguistics, psychology and communication studies. Intercultural communication is also referred to as the base for international businesses. There are several cross-cultural service providers around who can assist with the development of intercultural communication skills. Research is a major part of the development of intercultural communication skills. Cross-cultural business communication is very helpful in building cultural intelligence through coaching and training in cross-cultural communication, cross-cultural negotiation, multicultural conflict resolution, customer service, business and organizational communication. Cross-cultural understanding is not just for incoming expats. Cross-cultural understanding begins with those responsible for the project and reaches those delivering the service or content. The ability to communicate, negotiate and effectively work with people from other cultures is vital to international business. The problems in intercultural communication usually come from problems in message transmission. In communication between people of the same culture, the person who receives the message interprets it based on values, beliefs, and expectations for behavior similar to those of the person who sent the message. When this happens, the way the message is interpreted by the receiver is likely to be fairly similar to what the speaker intended. However, when the receiver of the message is a person from a different culture, the receiver uses information from his or her culture to interpret the message. The message that the receiver interprets may be very different from what the speaker intended. Attribution is the process in which people look for an explanation of another person's behavior. When someone does not understand another, he/she usually blames the confusion on the other's "stupidity, deceit, or craziness". Effective communication depends on the informal understandings among the parties involved that are based on the trust developed between them. When trust exists, there is implicit understanding within communication, cultural differences may be overlooked, and problems can be dealt with more easily. The meaning of trust and how it is developed and communicated vary across societies. Similarly, some cultures have a greater propensity to be trusting than others.
Views: 35842 The Audiopedia
What is REDLINING? What does REDLINING mean? REDLINING meaning, definition & explanation
 
03:31
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is REDLINING? What does REDLINING mean? REDLINING meaning - REDLINING pronunciation - REDLINING definition - REDLINING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. In the United States, redlining is the practice of denying services, either directly or through selectively raising prices, to residents of certain areas based on the racial or ethnic makeups of those areas. While some of the most famous examples of redlining regard denying financial services such as banking or insurance, other services such as health care or even supermarkets, can be denied to residents (or in the case of businesses like the aforementioned supermarkets, simply moved impractically far away from such residents) to carry out redlining. The term "redlining" was coined in the late 1960s by John McKnight, a sociologist and community activist. It refers to the practice of marking a red line on a map to delineate the area where banks would not invest; later the term was applied to discrimination against a particular group of people (usually by race or sex) irrespective of geography. During the heyday of redlining, the areas most frequently discriminated against were black inner city neighborhoods. For example, in Atlanta in the 1980s, a Pulitzer Prize-winning series of articles by investigative-reporter Bill Dedman showed that banks would often lend to lower-income whites but not to middle- or upper-income blacks. The use of blacklists is a related mechanism also used by redliners to keep track of groups, areas, and people that the discriminating party feels should be denied business or aid or other transactions. In the academic literature, redlining falls under the broader category of credit rationing. Reverse redlining occurs when a lender or insurer targets nonwhite consumers, not to deny them loans or insurance, but rather to charge them more than could be charged to a comparable white consumer. "As a consequence of redlining, neighborhoods that local banks deemed unfit for investment were left underdeveloped or in disrepair. Attempts to improve these neighborhoods with even relatively small-scale business ventures were commonly obstructed by financial institutions that continued to label the underwriting as too risky or simply rejected them outright. When existing businesses collapsed, new ones were not allowed to replace them, often leaving entire blocks empty and crumbling. Consequently African Americans in those neighborhoods were frequently limited in their access to banking, healthcare, retail merchandise, and even groceries." according to blackpast.org contributor Brent Gaspaire. Redlining paralyzed the housing market, lowered property values in certain areas and encouraged landlord abandonment. As abandonment increased, the population density became lower. Abandoned buildings served as havens for drug dealing and other illegal activity, increasing social problems and reluctance of people to invest in these areas. The film Revolution '67 examines the practice of redlining that occurred in Newark, New Jersey in the 1960s.
Views: 8937 The Audiopedia
What is PRODUCTION ENGINEERING? What does PRODUCTION ENGINEERING mean?
 
01:50
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is PRODUCTION ENGINEERING? What does PRODUCTION ENGINEERING mean? PRODUCTION ENGINEERING meaning - PRODUCTION ENGINEERING definition - PRODUCTION ENGINEERING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Production Engineering is a combination of manufacturing technology with management science. A production engineer typically has a wide knowledge of engineering practices and is aware of the management challenges related to production. The goal is to accomplish the production process in the smoothest, most-judicious and most-economic way. Production Engineering encompasses the application of castings,machining processing, joining processes, metal cutting & tool design, metrology, machine tools, machining systems, automation, jigs and fixtures, die and mould design, material science, design of automobile parts, and machine designing and manufacturing. Production engineering also overlaps substantially with manufacturing engineering and industrial engineering. In industry, once the design is realized, production engineering concepts regarding work-study, ergonomics, operation research, manufacturing management, materials management, production planning, etc., play important roles in efficient production processes. These deal with integrated design and efficient planning of the entire manufacturing system, which is becoming increasingly complex with the emergence of sophisticated production methods and control systems.
Views: 35656 The Audiopedia
What is INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING? What does INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING mean?
 
02:06
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING? What does INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING mean? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex processes, systems or organizations. Industrial engineers work to eliminate waste of time, money, materials, man-hours, machine time, energy and other resources that do not generate value. According to the Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers, they figure out how to do things better, they engineer processes and systems that improve quality and productivity. Industrial engineering is concerned with the development, improvement, and implementation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, materials, analysis and synthesis, as well as the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems or processes. While industrial engineering is a longstanding engineering discipline subject to (and eligible for) professional engineering licensure in most jurisdictions, its underlying concepts overlap considerably with certain business-oriented disciplines such as operations management. Depending on the sub-specialties involved, industrial engineering may also be known as, or overlap with, operations research, systems engineering, manufacturing engineering, production engineering, management science, management engineering, ergonomics or human factors engineering, safety engineering, or others, depending on the viewpoint or motives of the user.
Views: 23764 The Audiopedia
What is PHANTOSMIA? What does PHANTOSMIA mean? PHANTOSMIA meaning, definition & explanation
 
08:49
What is PHANTOSMIA? What does PHANTOSMIA mean? PHANTOSMIA meaning - PHANTOSMIA pronunciation - PHANTOSMIA definition - PHANTOSMIA explanation - How to pronounce PHANTOSMIA? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Phantosmia (phantom smell), also called an olfactory hallucination, is smelling an odor that is not actually there. It can occur in one nostril or both. Unpleasant phantosmia, cacosmia, is more common and is often described as smelling burned, foul, spoiled, or rotten. Experiencing occasional phantom smells is normal and usually goes away on its own in time. When hallucinations of this type do not seem to go away or when they keep coming back, it can be very upsetting and can disrupt an individual's quality of life. Olfactory hallucinations can be caused by common medical conditions such as nasal infections, nasal polyps, or dental problems. It can result from neurological conditions such as migraines, head injuries, strokes, Parkinson's disease, seizures, or brain tumors. It can also be a symptom of certain mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, intoxication or withdrawal from drugs and alcohol, or psychotic disorders. Environmental exposures are sometimes the cause as well, such as smoking, exposure to certain types of chemicals (e.g., insecticides or solvents), or radiation treatment for head or neck cancer. A physician can determine if the problem is with the sense of smell (olfactory system) or taste (gustatory system), or if it is caused by a neurological or psychiatric disorder. Phantosmia usually goes away on its own, though this can sometimes be gradual and occur over several years. When caused by an illness (e.g., sinusitis), it should go away when the illness resolves. If the problem persists or causes significant discomfort, a doctor might recommend nasal saline drops, antidepressant or anticonvulsant medications, anesthesia to parts of the nose, or in very rare circumstances, surgical procedures to remove the olfactory nerves or bulbs. The cause of phantosmia can be either peripheral or central, or a combination of the two. The peripheral explanation of this disorder is that rogue neurons malfunction and transmit incorrect signals to the brain or it may be due to the malfunction of the olfactory neurons. The central explanation is that active or incorrectly functioning cells of the brain cause the perception of the disturbing odor. Another central cause is that the perception of the phantom odor usually follows after the occurrence of seizures. The time span of the symptoms usually lasts a few seconds. Other studies on phantosmia patients have found that the perception of the odor initiates with a sneeze, thus they avoid any nasal activity. It has also been found that the perception of the odor is worse in the nostril that is weaker in olfaction ability. It has also been noted that about a quarter of patients suffering from phantosmia in one nostril will usually develop it in the other nostril as well over a time period of a few months or years. Several patients who have received surgical treatment have stated that they have a feeling or intuition that the phantom odor is about to occur, however it does not. This sensation has been supported by positron emission tomography, and it has been found that these patients have a high level of activity in their contralateral frontal, insular and temporal regions. The significance of the activity in these regions is not definitive as not a significant number of patients have been studied to conclude any relation of this activity with the symptoms. However the intensity of the activity in these regions was reduced by excising the olfactory epithelium from the associated nasal cavity.
Views: 6941 The Audiopedia
What is SPECIAL EDUCATION? What does SPECIAL EDUCATION mean? SPECIAL EDUCATION meaning & explanation
 
02:52
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is SPECIAL EDUCATION? What does SPECIAL EDUCATION mean? SPECIAL EDUCATION meaning - SPECIAL EDUCATION definition - SPECIAL EDUCATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Special education (also known as special needs education or aided education) is the practice of educating students with special educational needs in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs. Ideally, this process involves the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, and accessible settings. These interventions are designed to help learners with special needs achieve a higher level of personal self-sufficiency and success in school and their community, than may be available if the student were only given access to a typical classroom education. Common special needs include learning disabilities, communication disorders, emotional and behavioral disorders, physical disabilities, and developmental disabilities. Students with these kinds of special needs are likely to benefit from additional educational services such as different approaches to teaching, the use of technology, a specifically adapted teaching area, or a resource room. Intellectual giftedness is a difference in learning and can also benefit from specialised teaching techniques or different educational programs, but the term "special education" is generally used to specifically indicate instruction of students with disabilities. Gifted education is handled separately. Whereas special education is designed specifically for students with special needs, remedial education can be designed for any students, with or without special needs; the defining trait is simply that they have reached a point of unpreparedness, regardless of why. For example, even people of high intelligence can be under prepared if their education was disrupted, for example, by internal displacement during civil disorder or a war. In most developed countries, educators modify teaching methods and environments so that the maximum number of students are served in general education environments. Therefore, special education in developed countries is often regarded as a service rather than a place. Integration can reduce social stigmas and improve academic achievement for many students. The opposite of special education is general education. General education is the standard curriculum presented without special teaching methods or supports.
Views: 9990 The Audiopedia
What is TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP? What does TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP mean?
 
05:07
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP? What does TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP mean? TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP meaning - TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP definition - TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Transformational leadership is a style of leadership where a leader works with subordinates to identify needed change, creating a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executing the change in tandem with committed members of a group. Transformational leadership serves to enhance the motivation, morale, and job-performance of followers through a variety of mechanisms; these include connecting the follower's sense of identity and self to a project and to the collective identity of the organization; being a role model for followers in order to inspire them and to raise their interest in the project; challenging followers to take greater ownership for their work, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of followers, allowing the leader to align followers with tasks that enhance their performance. The concept of transformational leadership was initially introduced by James V. Downton, the first to coin the term "Transformational leadership", a concept further developed by leadership expert and presidential biographer James MacGregor Burns. According to Burns, transformational leadership can be seen when "leaders and followers make each other advance to a higher level of morality and motivation." Through the strength of their vision and personality, transformational leaders are able to inspire followers to change expectations, perceptions, and motivations to work towards common goals. Unlike in the transactional approach, it is not based on a "give and take" relationship, but on the leader's personality, traits and ability to make a change through example, articulation of an energizing vision and challenging goals. Transforming leaders are idealized in the sense that they are a moral exemplar of working towards the benefit of the team, organization and/or community. Burns theorized that transforming and transactional leadership were mutually exclusive styles. Later, researcher Bernard M. Bass expanded upon Burns' original ideas to develop what is today referred to as Bass’ Transformational Leadership Theory. According to Bass, transformational leadership can be defined based on the impact that it has on followers. Transformational leaders, Bass suggested, garner trust, respect, and admiration from their followers. Bernard M. Bass (1985), extended the work of Burns (1978) by explaining the psychological mechanisms that underlie transforming and transactional leadership. Bass introduced the term "transformational" in place of "transforming." Bass added to the initial concepts of Burns (1978) to help explain how transformational leadership could be measured, as well as how it impacts follower motivation and performance. The extent to which a leader is transformational, is measured first, in terms of his influence on the followers. The followers of such a leader feel trust, admiration, loyalty and respect for the leader and because of the qualities of the transformational leader are willing to work harder than originally expected. These outcomes occur because the transformational leader offers followers something more than just working for self-gain; they provide followers with an inspiring mission and vision and give them an identity. The leader transforms and motivates followers through his or her idealized influence (earlier referred to as charisma), intellectual stimulation and individual consideration. In addition, this leader encourages followers to come up with new and unique ways to challenge the status quo and to alter the environment to support being successful. Finally, in contrast to Burns, Bass suggested that leadership can simultaneously display both transformational and transactional leadership. According to Bass, transformational leadership encompasses several different aspects, including: Emphasizing intrinsic motivation and positive development of followers; Raising awareness of moral standards; Highlighting important priorities; Fostering higher moral maturity in followers; Creating an ethical climate (share values, high ethical standards); Encouraging followers to look beyond self-interests to the common good; Promoting cooperation and harmony; Using authentic, consistent means; Using persuasive appeals based on reason;
Views: 10532 The Audiopedia
What is PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT? What does PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT mean?
 
05:00
What is PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT? What does PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT mean? PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT meaning - PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT definition - PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Participatory development (PD) seeks to engage local populations in development projects. Participatory development has taken a variety of forms since it emerged in the 1970s, when it was introduced as an important part of the "basic needs approach" to development. Most manifestations of PD seek “to give the poor a part in initiatives designed for their benefit” in the hopes that development projects will be more sustainable and successful if local populations are engaged in the development process. PD has become an increasingly accepted method of development practice and is employed by a variety of organizations. It is often presented as an alternative to mainstream “top-down” development. There is some question about the proper definition of PD as it varies depending on the perspective applied. Two perspectives that can define PD are the "Social Movement Perspective" and the "Institutional Perspective": The "Social Movement Perspective" defines participation as the mobilization of people to eliminate unjust hierarchies of knowledge, power, and economic distribution. This perspective identifies the goal of participation as an empowering process for people to handle challenges and influence the direction of their own lives. Empowerment participation is when primary stakeholders are capable and willing to initiate the process and take part in the analysis. This leads to joint decision making about what should be achieved and how. While outsiders are equal partners in the development effort, the primary stakeholders are primus inter pares, i.e., they are equal partners with a significant say in decisions concerning their lives. Dialogue identifies and analyzes critical issues, and an exchange of knowledge and experiences leads to solutions. Ownership and control of the process rest in the hands of the primary stakeholders. The "Institutional Perspective" defines participation as the reach and inclusion of inputs by relevant groups in the design and implementation of a development project. The “Institutional Perspective” uses the inputs and opinions of relevant groups, or stakeholders in a community, as a tool to achieve a pre-established goal defined by someone external to the community involved. The development project, initiated by an activist external to the community involved, is a process by which problem issues in a community can be divided into stages, and this division facilitates assessment of when and to what degree a participatory approach is relevant. From an institutional perspective, there are four key stages of a development project: Research Stage, Design Stage, Implementation Stage, Evaluation Stage that are defined in later sections of this article. The institutional perspective can also be referred to as a "Project-Based Perspective". Advocates of PD emphasize a difference between participation as “an end in itself”, and participatory development as a “process of empowerment” for marginalized populations. This has also been described as the contrast between valuing participation for intrinsic rather than purely instrumental reasons. In the former manifestation, participants may be asked to give opinions without any assurance that these opinions will have an effect or may be informed of decisions after they have been made. In the latter form, proponents assert that PD tries to “foster and enhance people’s capability to have a role in their society’s development”. Participatory development employed in particular initiatives often involves the process of content creation. For example, UNESCO's Finding a Voice Project employs ICT for development initiatives. Local content creation and distribution contributes to the formation of local information networks. This is a bottom-up approach that involves extensive discussions, conversations, and decision-making with the target community. Community group members create content according to their capacities and interests. This process facilitates engagement with information and communication technology (ICT) with the goal of strengthening individual and social development. This participatory content creation is an important tool for poverty reduction strategies and creating a digitally inclusive knowledge society.
Views: 6257 The Audiopedia
What is INDEPENDENT STUDY? What does INDEPENDENT STUDY mean? INDEPENDENT STUDY meaning
 
03:49
What is INDEPENDENT STUDY? What does INDEPENDENT STUDY mean? INDEPENDENT STUDY meaning - INDEPENDENT STUDY definition - INDEPENDENT STUDY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Independent study is a form of education offered by many high schools, colleges, and other educational institutions. It is sometimes referred to as directed study, and is an educational activity undertaken by an individual with little to no supervision. Typically a student and professor or teacher agree upon a topic for the student to research with guidance from the instructor for an agreed upon amount of credits. Independent studies provide a way for well-motivated students to pursue a topic of interest that does not necessarily fit into a traditional academic curriculum. They are a way for students to learn specialized material or gain research experience. Also, independent studies provide students opportunities to explore their interests deeper and make important decisions about how and where they will direct their talents in the future. Another way to understand independent study is to understand learning from a distance. Learning from a distance is a theory in which the student is at a physical or a mental distance from his or her teacher. The student and the teacher are connected by something such as a worksheet, an essay, or through a website on the internet. For elementary and junior high, independent study is sometimes a Gifted and Talented Education (GATE) program, where the student must research the topic and formulate and answer questions. At the end, they develop and present a product, although not all GATE systems participate in this. Many charter schools in the US provide independent study and homeschooling in a variety of formats: online, in-person or a hybrid of online/in-person interaction. These independent study programs are particularly helpful for those who find a traditional classroom setting to be unsatisfactory. For example, independent study is ideal for those who have children, health issues, intense work schedules, or gifted academic ability. Often students with high scholastic standing are encouraged to take independent studies to try to learn without attendance in a class. Independent study is also useful for self-directed learning activities that allow the student to be self-reliant. A program titled "The Research Experiences for Undergraduates" (REU) has been founded by the National Science Foundation which provides funding for undergraduates to engage in different areas of research outside of the classroom. Groups are formed of graduates, undergraduates, and faculty to work on a specific research project. Studies have shown that personality can influence whether a person enjoys an independent study project, rather than lectures. People that believe the teacher should be authoritarian did not perform well in independent studies. Personality, however, should not solely dictate who is allowed to receive independent study. Though not afforded the same attention as individual personality on behalf of the potential student, some interest should be given to the teachers and or professor's ability to relate to the distance learner. Breaking the mold of in class instruction versus the distance learner can be a difficult task to undertake by the instructor. They are not the same environment and changes and or accommodations should be made while keeping integrity of the overall class.
Views: 6027 The Audiopedia
What is GLOBAL SOURCING? What does GLOBAL SOURCING mean? GLOBAL SOURCING meaning & explanation
 
04:26
What is GLOBAL SOURCING? What does GLOBAL SOURCING mean? GLOBAL SOURCING meaning - GLOBAL SOURCING definition - GLOBAL SOURCING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Global sourcing is the practice of sourcing from the global market for goods and services across geopolitical boundaries. Global sourcing often aims to exploit global efficiencies in the delivery of a product or service. These efficiencies include low cost skilled labor, low cost raw material and other economic factors like tax breaks and low trade tariffs. A large number of Information Technology projects and Services, including IS Applications and Mobile Apps and database services are outsourced globally to countries like Pakistan and India for more economical pricing. Common examples of globally sourced products or services include: labor-intensive manufactured products produced using low-cost Chinese labor, call centers staffed with low-cost English speaking workers in the Philippines and Pakistan and India, and IT work performed by low-cost programmers in India and Pakistan and Eastern Europe. While these examples are examples of Low-cost country sourcing, global sourcing is not limited to low-cost countries. Majority of companies today strive to harness the potential of global sourcing in reducing cost. Hence it is commonly found that global sourcing initiatives and programs form an integral part of the strategic sourcing plan and procurement strategy of many multinational companies. Global sourcing is often associated with a centralized procurement strategy for a multinational, wherein a central buying organization seeks economies of scale through corporate-wide standardization and benchmarking. A definition focused on this aspect of global sourcing is: "proactively integrating and coordinating common items and materials, processes, designs, technologies, and suppliers across worldwide purchasing, engineering, and operating locations (p. 304)" The global sourcing of goods and services has advantages and disadvantages that can go beyond low cost. Some advantages of global sourcing, beyond low cost, include: learning how to do business in a potential market, tapping into skills or resources unavailable domestically, developing alternate supplier/vendor sources to stimulate competition, and increasing total supply capacity. Some key disadvantages of global sourcing can include: hidden costs associated with different cultures and time zones, exposure to financial and political risks in countries with (often) emerging economies, increased risk of the loss of intellectual property, and increased monitoring costs relative to domestic supply. For manufactured goods, some key disadvantages include long lead times, the risk of port shutdowns interrupting supply, and the difficulty of monitoring product quality. (With regard to quality in the food industry, see Roth et al. (2008).). International procurement organizations (or IPOs) may be an element of the global sourcing strategy for a firm. These procurement organizations take primary responsibility for identifying and developing key suppliers across sourcing categories and help satisfy periodic sourcing requirements of the parent organization. Such setups help provide focus in country-based sourcing efforts. Particularly in the case of large and complex countries, such as China, where a range of sub-markets exist and suppliers span the entire value chain of a product/commodity, such IPOs provide essential on-the-ground information. Over time, these IPOs may grow up to be complete procurement organizations in their own right, with fully engaged category experts and quality assurance teams. It is therefore important for firms to clearly define an integration and scale-up plan for the IPO.
Views: 4020 The Audiopedia
What is PHARMACOVIGILANCE? What does PHARMACOVIGILANCE mean? PHARMACOVIGILANCE meaning
 
07:30
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is PHARMACOVIGILANCE? What does PHARMACOVIGILANCE mean? PHARMACOVIGILANCE meaning - PHARMACOVIGILANCE definition - PHARMACOVIGILANCE explanation - How to pronounce PHARMACOVIGILANCE? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Pharmacovigilance (PV or PhV), also known as drug safety, is the pharmacological science relating to the collection, detection, assessment, monitoring, and prevention of adverse effects with pharmaceutical products. The etymological roots for the word "pharmacovigilance" are: pharmakon (Greek for drug) and vigilare (Latin for to keep watch). As such, pharmacovigilance heavily focuses on adverse drug reactions, or ADRs, which are defined as any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, including lack of efficacy (the condition that this definition only applies with the doses normally used for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological disorder function was excluded with the latest amendment of the applicable legislation). Medication errors such as overdose, and misuse and abuse of a drug as well as drug exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding, are also of interest, even without an adverse event, because they may result in an adverse drug reaction. Information received from patients and healthcare providers via pharmacovigilance agreements (PVAs), as well as other sources such as the medical literature, plays a critical role in providing the data necessary for pharmacovigilance to take place. In fact, in order to market or to test a pharmaceutical product in most countries, adverse event data received by the license holder (usually a pharmaceutical company) must be submitted to the local drug regulatory authority. (See Adverse Event Reporting below.) Ultimately, pharmacovigilance is concerned with identifying the hazards associated with pharmaceutical products and with minimizing the risk of any harm that may come to patients. Companies must conduct a comprehensive drug safety and pharmacovigilance audit to assess their compliance with worldwide laws, regulations, and guidance. Pharmacovigilance has its own unique terminology that is important to understand. Most of the following terms are used within this article and are peculiar to drug safety, although some are used by other disciplines within the pharmaceutical sciences as well. Adverse drug reaction is a side effect (non intended reaction to the drug) occurring with a drug where a positive (direct) causal relationship between the event and the drug is thought, or has been proven, to exist. Adverse event (AE) is a side effect occurring with a drug. By definition, the causal relationship between the AE and the drug is unknown. Benefits are commonly expressed as the proven therapeutic good of a product but should also include the patient's subjective assessment of its effects. Causal relationship is said to exist when a drug is thought to have caused or contributed to the occurrence of an adverse drug reaction. Clinical trial (or study) refers to an organised program to determine the safety and/or efficacy of a drug (or drugs) in patients. The design of a clinical trial will depend on the drug and the phase of its development. Control group is a group (or cohort) of individual patients that is used as a standard of comparison within a clinical trial. The control group may be taking a placebo (where no active drug is given) or where a different active drug is given as a comparator. Dechallenge and rechallenge refer to a drug being stopped and restarted in a patient, respectively. A positive dechallenge has occurred, for example, when an adverse event abates or resolves completely following the drug's discontinuation. A positive rechallenge has occurred when the adverse event re-occurs after the drug is restarted. Dechallenge and rechallenge play an important role in determining whether a causal relationship between an event and a drug exists.
Views: 14317 The Audiopedia
What is UNCONDITIONAL LOVE? What does UNCONDITIONAL LOVE mean? UNCONDITIONAL LOVE meaning
 
02:04
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is UNCONDITIONAL LOVE? What does UNCONDITIONAL LOVE mean? UNCONDITIONAL LOVE meaning - UNCONDITIONAL LOVE definition - UNCONDITIONAL LOVE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Unconditional love is known as affection without any limitations, it can also be love without conditions. This term is sometimes associated with other terms such as true altruism, or complete love. Each area of expertise has a certain way of describing unconditional love, but most will agree that it is that type of love which has no bounds and is unchanging. It is a concept comparable to true love, a term which is more frequently used to describe love between lovers. By contrast, unconditional love is frequently used to describe love between family members, comrades in arms and between others in highly committed relationships. An example of this is a parent's love for their child; no matter a test score, a life changing decision, an argument, or a strong belief, the amount of love that remains between this bond is seen as unchanging and unconditional. Unconditional love is garnered and shared by those who love themselves first. In Christianity, unconditional love is thought to be part of the Four Loves; affection, friendship, eros, and charity. In ethology, or the study of animal behavior, unconditional love would refer to altruism which in turn refers to the behavior by individuals that increases the fitness of another while decreasing the fitness of the individual committing the act. In psychology, unconditional love refers to a state of mind in which one has the goal of increasing the welfare of another, despite any evidence of benefit for oneself. The term is also widely used in family and couples counseling manuals.
Views: 11325 The Audiopedia
What is MARINE ENGINEERING? What does MARINE ENGINEERING mean? MARINE ENGINEERING meaning
 
02:59
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is MARINE ENGINEERING? What does MARINE ENGINEERING mean? MARINE ENGINEERING meaning - MARINE ENGINEERING definition - MARINE ENGINEERING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Marine engineering includes the engineering of boats, ships, oil rigs and any other marine vessel or structure, as well as oceanographic engineering. Specifically, marine engineering is the discipline of applying engineering sciences, including mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronic engineering, and computer science, to the development, design, operation and maintenance of watercraft propulsion and on-board systems and oceanographic technology. It includes but is not limited to power and propulsion plants, machinery, piping, automation and control systems for marine vehicles of any kind, such as surface ships and submarines. The purely mechanical ship operation aspect of marine engineering has some relationship with naval architecture. However, whereas naval architects are concerned with the overall design of the ship and its propulsion through the water, marine engineers are focused towards the main propulsion plant, the powering and mechanization aspects of the ship functions such as steering, anchoring, cargo handling, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, electrical power generation and electrical power distribution, interior and exterior communication, and other related requirements. In some cases, the responsibilities of each industry collide and is not specific to either field. Propellers are examples of one of these types of responsibilities. For naval architects a propeller is a hydrodynamic device. For marine engineers a propeller acts similarly to a pump. Hull vibration, excited by the propeller, is another such area. Noise control and shock hardening must be the joint responsibility of both the naval architect and the marine engineer. In fact, most issues caused by machinery are responsibilities in general. Not all marine engineering is concerned with moving vessels. Offshore construction, also called offshore engineering, maritime engineering, is concerned with the technical design of fixed and floating marine structures, such as oil platforms and offshore wind farms. Oceanographic engineering is concerned with mechanical, electrical, and electronic, and computing technology deployed to support oceanography, and also falls under the umbrella of marine engineering, especially in Britain, where it is covered by the same professional organisation, the IMarEST.
Views: 24741 The Audiopedia
What is PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT? What does PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT mean?
 
05:22
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT? What does PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT mean? PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT meaning - PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT definition - PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Performance management (PM) includes activities which ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner. Performance management can focus on the performance of an organization, a department, employee, or even the processes to build a product or service, as well as many other areas. PM is also known as a process by which organizations align their resources, systems and employees to strategic objectives and priorities. This is used most often in the workplace, can apply wherever people interact — schools, churches, community meetings, sports teams, health setting, governmental agencies, social events, and even political settings - anywhere in the world people interact with their environments to produce desired effects. Armstrong and Baron (1998) defined it as a “strategic and integrated approach to increase the effectiveness of companies by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors.” It may be possible to get all employees to reconcile personal goals with organizational goals and increase productivity and profitability of an organization using this process. It can be applied by organizations or a single department or section inside an organization, as well as an individual person. The performance process is appropriately named the self-propelled performance process (SPPP). First, a commitment analysis must be done where a job mission statement is drawn up for each job. The job mission statement is a job definition in terms of purpose, customers, product and scope. The aim with this analysis is to determine the continuous key objectives and performance standards for each job position. Following the commitment analysis is the work analysis of a particular job in terms of the reporting structure and job description. If a job description is not available, then a systems analysis can be done to draw up a job description. The aim with this analysis is to determine the continuous critical objectives and performance standards for each job. Werner Erhard, Michael C. Jensen, and their colleagues have developed a new approach to improving performance in organizations. Their model stresses how the constraints imposed by one’s own worldview can impede cognitive abilities that would otherwise be available. Their work delves into the source of performance, which is not accessible by mere linear cause-and-effect analysis. They assert that the level of performance that people achieve correlates with how work situations occur to them and that language (including what is said and unsaid in conversations) plays a major role in how situations occur to the performer. They assert that substantial gains in performance are more likely to be achieved by management understanding how employees perceive the world and then encouraging and implementing changes that make sense to employees' worldview. Many people equate performance management with performance appraisal. This is a common misconception. Performance management is the term used to refer to activities, tools, processes, and programs that companies create or apply to manage the performance of individual employees, teams, departments, and other organizational units within their organizational influence. In contrast, performance appraisal refers to the act of appraising or evaluating performance during a given performance period to determine how well an employee, a vendor or an organizational unit has performed relative to agreed objectives or goals, and this is only one of many important activities within the overall concept of performance management.
Views: 14855 The Audiopedia
What is COMMUNITY POLICING? What does COMMUNITY POLICING mean? COMMUNITY POLICING meaning
 
03:19
What is COMMUNITY POLICING? What does COMMUNITY POLICING mean? COMMUNITY POLICING meaning - COMMUNITY POLICING definition - COMMUNITY POLICING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Community policing, or community-oriented policing, is a strategy of policing that focuses on police building ties and working closely with members of the communities. In the United States, the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 established the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) within the Justice Department to promote community policing. Community policing is a policy that requires police to inherit a proactive approach to address public safety concerns. Community-oriented policing was a cornerstone of the Clinton Administration and gained its funding from the 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act. The overall assessment of community oriented policing is positive, as both officers and community members attest to its effectiveness in reducing crime and raising the sense of security in a community. "Community policing is a philosophy of full service personalized policing, where the same officer patrols and works in the same area on a permanent basis, from a decentralized place, working in a proactive partnership with citizens to identify and solve problems." —Bertus Ferreira Community policing creates partnerships between law enforcement agency and other organizations like government agencies, community members, nonprofit service providers, private businesses and the media. The media represent a powerful pattern by which the police can communicate with the community. Community policing recognizes that police cannot solve every public safety problem alone, so interactive partnerships are created. The policing uses the public for developing problem-solving solutions. The contemporary community policing movement emphasizes changing the role of law enforcement from a static, reactive, incident-driven bureaucracy to a more dynamic, open, quality-oriented partnership with the community. Community policing philosophy emphasizes that police officers work closely with local citizens and community agencies in designing and implementing a variety of crime prevention strategies and problem-solving measures. Common implementations of community-policing include: Relying on community-based crime prevention by utilizing civilian education, neighborhood watch, and a variety of other techniques, as opposed to relying solely on police patrols. Re-structuralizing of patrol from an emergency response based system to emphasizing proactive techniques such as foot patrol. Increased officer accountability to civilians they are supposed to serve. Decentralizing the police authority, allowing more discretion amongst lower-ranking officers, and more initiative expected from them.
Views: 6551 The Audiopedia
What is EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP? What does EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP mean?
 
08:37
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP? What does EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP mean? EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP meaning - EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP definition - EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. School leadership is the process of enlisting and guiding the talents and energies of teachers, pupils, and parents toward achieving common educational aims. This term is often used synonymously with educational leadership in the United States and has supplanted educational management in the United Kingdom. Several universities in the United States offer graduate degrees in educational leadership. Certain obstacles of educational leadership can be overcome. A self-assessment technique can help examine equity and justice that affects student diversity, especially with selection of candidates. The term school leadership came into currency in the late 20th century for several reasons. Demands were made on schools for higher levels of pupil achievement, and schools were expected to improve and reform. These expectations were accompanied by calls for accountability at the school level. Maintenance of the status quo was no longer considered acceptable. Administration and management are terms that connote stability through the exercise of control and supervision. The concept of leadership was favored because it conveys dynamism and pro-activity. The principal or school head is commonly thought to be the school leader; however, school leadership may include other persons, such as members of a formal leadership team and other persons who contribute toward the aims of the school. While school leadership or educational leadership have become popular as replacements for educational administration in recent years, leadership arguably presents only a partial picture of the work of school, division or district, and ministerial or state education agency personnel, not to mention the areas of research explored by university faculty in departments concerned with the operations of schools and educational institutions. For this reason, there may be grounds to question the merits of the term as a catch-all for the field. Rather, the etiology of its use may be found in more generally and con-temporarily experienced neo-liberal social and economic governance models, especially in the United States and the United Kingdom. On this view, the term is understood as having been borrowed from business. In the United States, the superintendency, or role of the chief school administrator, has undergone many changes since the creation of the position—which is often attributed to the Buffalo Common Council that approved a superintendent on June 9, 1837. If history serves us correctly, the superintendency is about 170 years old with four major role changes from the early 19th century through the first half of the 20th century and into the early years of the 21st century. Initially, the superintendent's main function was clerical in nature and focused on assisting the board of education with day-to-day details of running the school. At the turn of the 20th century, states began to develop common curriculum for public schools with superintendents fulfilling the role of teacher-scholar or master educator who had added an emphasis on curricular and instructional matters to school operations. In the early 20th century, the Industrial Revolution affected the superintendent's role by shifting the emphasis to expert manager with efficiency in handling non-instructional tasks such as budget, facility,and transportation. The release of A Nation at Risk in 1983 directly impacted public school accountability and, ultimately, the superintendency. The early 1980s initiated the change that has continued through today with the superintendent viewed as chief executive officer, including the roles of professional adviser to the board, leader of reforms, manager of resources and communicator to the public. The term "educational leadership" is also used to describe programs beyond schools. Leaders in community colleges, proprietary colleges, community-based programs, and universities are also educational leaders.
Views: 8675 The Audiopedia
What is CULTURAL DIPLOMACY? What does CULTURAL DIPLOMACY mean? CULTURAL DIPLOMACY meaning
 
09:22
What is CULTURAL DIPLOMACY? What does CULTURAL DIPLOMACY mean? CULTURAL DIPLOMACY meaning - CULTURAL DIPLOMACY definition - CULTURAL DIPLOMACY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Cultural diplomacy a type of public diplomacy and soft power that includes the "exchange of ideas, information, art and other aspects of culture among nations and their peoples in order to foster mutual understanding." The purpose of cultural diplomacy is for the people of a foreign nation to develop an understanding of the nation's ideals and institutions in an effort to build broad support for economic and political goals. In essence "cultural diplomacy reveals the soul of a nation," which in turn creates influence. Though often overlooked, cultural diplomacy can and does play an important role in achieving national security aims. Culture is a set of values and practices that create meaning for society. This includes both high culture (literature, art, and education, which appeals to elites) and popular culture (appeals to the masses). This is what governments seek to show foreign audiences when engaging in cultural diplomacy. It is a type of soft power, which is the "ability to get what you want through attraction rather than coercion or payments. It arises from a country's culture, political ideals and policies." This indicates that the value of culture is its ability to attract foreigners to a nation. Cultural diplomacy is also a component of public diplomacy. Public diplomacy is enhanced by a larger society and culture, but simultaneously public diplomacy helps to "amplify and advertise that society and culture to the world at large.” It could be argued that the information component of public diplomacy can only be fully effective where there is already a relationship that gives credibility to the information being relayed. This comes from knowledge of the other’s culture.” Cultural diplomacy has been called the “linchpin of public diplomacy” because cultural activities have the possibility to demonstrate the best of a nation. In this way, cultural diplomacy and public diplomacy are intimately linked. Richard T. Arndt, a former State Department cultural diplomacy practitioner, said "Cultural relations grow naturally and organically, without government intervention – the transactions of trade and tourism, student flows, communications, book circulation, migration, media access, inter-marriage – millions of daily cross-cultural encounters. If that is correct, cultural diplomacy can only be said to take place when formal diplomats, serving national governments, try to shape and channel this natural flow to advance national interests.” It is important to note that, while cultural diplomacy is, as indicated above, a government activity, the private sector has a very real role to play because the government does not create culture, therefore, it can only attempt to make a culture known and define the impact this organic growth will have on national policies. Cultural diplomacy attempts to manage the international environment by utilizing these sources and achievements and making them known abroad. An important aspect of this is listening- cultural diplomacy is meant to be a two-way exchange. This exchange is then intended to foster a mutual understanding and thereby win influence within the target nation. Cultural diplomacy derives its credibility not from being close to government institutions, but from its proximity to cultural authorities. It is seen as a silent weapon in gaining control over another nation with the use of non-violent methods to perpetrate a relationship of mutual understanding and support among the countries involved. Ultimately, the goal of cultural diplomacy is to influence a foreign audience and use that influence, which is built up over the long term, as a sort of good will reserve to win support for policies. It seeks to harness the elements of culture to induce foreigners to: - have a positive view of the country's people, culture and policies, - induce greater cooperation between the two nations, - aid in changing the policies or political environment of the target nation, - prevent, manage and mitigate conflict with the target nation.
Views: 1977 The Audiopedia
What is POLYMATH? What does POLYMATH mean? POLYMATH meaning, definition & explanation
 
04:38
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is POLYMATH? What does POLYMATH mean? POLYMATH meaning - POLYMATH pronunciation - POLYMATH definition - POLYMATH explanation - How to pronounce POLYMATH? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. The term was first used in the 17th century; the related term, polyhistor, is an ancient term with similar meaning. The term is often used to describe great thinkers of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment who excelled at several fields in science and the arts. In the Italian Renaissance, the idea of the polymath was expressed by Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472), in the statement that "a man can do all things if he will". Embodying a basic tenet of Renaissance humanism that humans are limitless in their capacity for development, the concept led to the notion that people should embrace all knowledge and develop their capacities as fully as possible. This was expressed in the term "Renaissance man" which is often applied to the gifted people of that age who sought to develop their abilities in all areas of accomplishment: intellectual, artistic, social, and physical. This term entered the lexicon during the twentieth century and has now been applied to great thinkers living before and after the Renaissance. "Renaissance man" was first recorded in written English in the early 20th century. It is now used to refer to great thinkers living before, during, or after the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". Many notable polymaths lived during the Renaissance period, a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th through to the 17th century and that began in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spread to the rest of Europe. These polymaths had a rounded approach to education that reflected the ideals of the humanists of the time. A gentleman or courtier of that era was expected to speak several languages, play a musical instrument, write poetry, and so on, thus fulfilling the Renaissance ideal. The idea of a universal education was essential to achieving polymath ability, hence the word university was used to describe a seat of learning. At this time, universities did not specialize in specific areas but rather trained students in a broad array of science, philosophy, and theology. This universal education gave them a grounding from which they could continue into apprenticeship toward becoming a master of a specific field. When someone is called a "Renaissance man" today, it is meant that, rather than simply having broad interests or superficial knowledge in several fields, he possesses a more profound knowledge and a proficiency, or even an expertise, in at least some of those fields. Some dictionaries use the term "Renaissance man" to describe someone with many interests or talents, while others give a meaning restricted to the Renaissance and more closely related to Renaissance ideals. Aside from "Renaissance man" as mentioned above, similar terms in use are Homo Universalis (Latin) and Uomo Universale (Italian), which translate to "universal person" or "universal man". The related term generalist—contrasted with a specialist—is used to describe a person with a general approach to knowledge. The term Universal Genius or Versatile Genius is also used, with Leonardo da Vinci as the prime example again. The term seems to be used especially when a person has made lasting contributions in at least one of the fields in which he was actively involved, and when he had a universality of approach. When a person is described as having "encyclopedic knowledge", they exhibit a vast scope of knowledge. This designation may be anachronistic, however, in the case of persons such as Eratosthenes whose reputation for having encyclopedic knowledge predates the existence of any encyclopedic object.
Views: 12827 The Audiopedia
What is COLD CHAIN? What does COLD CHAIN mean? COLD CHAIN meaning, definition & explanation
 
03:47
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is COLD CHAIN? What does COLD CHAIN mean? COLD CHAIN meaning - COLD CHAIN definition - COLD CHAIN explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A cold chain is a temperature-controlled supply chain. An unbroken cold chain is an uninterrupted series of storage and distribution activities which maintain a given temperature range. It is used to help extend and ensure the shelf life of products such as fresh agricultural produce, seafood, frozen food, photographic film, chemicals, and pharmaceutical drugs. Such products, during transport and when in transient storage, are called cool cargo. Unlike other goods or merchandise, cold chain goods are perishable and always en route towards end use or destination, even when held temporarily in cold stores and hence commonly referred to as cargo during its entire logistics cycle. Cold chains are common in the food and pharmaceutical industries and also in some chemical shipments. One common temperature range for a cold chain in pharmaceutical industries is 2 to 8 °C (36 to 46 °F). but the specific temperature (and time at temperature) tolerances depend on the actual product being shipped. Unique to fresh produce cargoes, the cold chain requires to additionally maintain product specific environment parameters which include air quality levels (carbon dioxide, oxygen, humidity and others), which makes this the most complicated cold chain to operate. This is important in the supply of vaccines to distant clinics in hot climates served by poorly developed transport networks. Disruption of a cold chain due to war may produce consequences similar to the smallpox outbreaks in the Philippines during the Spanish–American War. There have been numerous events where vaccines have been shipped to third world countries with little to no cold chain infrastructure (Sub-Sahara Africa) where the vaccines were inactivated due to excess exposure to heat. Patients that thought they were being immunized, in reality were put at greater risk due to the inactivated vaccines they received. Thus great attention is now being paid to the entire cold chain distribution process to ensure that simple diseases can eventually be eradicated from society. Traditionally all historical stability data developed for vaccines was based on the temperature range of 2–8 °C (36–46 °F). With recent development of biological products by former vaccine developers, biologics has fallen into the same category of storage at 2–8 °C (36–46 °F) due to the nature of the products and the lack of testing these products at wider storage conditions. The cold chain distribution process is an extension of the good manufacturing practice (GMP) environment that all drugs and biological products are required to adhere to, enforced by the various health regulatory bodies. As such, the distribution process must be validated to ensure that there is no negative impact to the safety, efficacy or quality of the drug substance. The GMP environment requires that all processes that might impact the safety, efficacy or quality of the drug substance must be validated, including storage and distribution of the drug substance.
Views: 17514 The Audiopedia
What is BRAND MANAGEMENT? What does BRAND MANAGEMENT mean? BRAND MANAGEMENT meaning
 
04:39
Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is BRAND MANAGEMENT? What does BRAND MANAGEMENT mean? BRAND MANAGEMENT meaning - BRAND MANAGEMENT definition - BRAND MANAGEMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. In marketing, brand management is the analysis and planning on how that brand is perceived in the market. Developing a good relationship with the target market is essential for brand management. Tangible elements of brand management include the product itself; look, price, the packaging, etc. The intangible elements are the experience that the consumer has had with the brand, and also the relationship that they have with that brand. A brand manager would oversee all of these things. In 2001, Hislop defined branding as "the process of creating a relationship or a connection between a company's product and emotional perception of the customer for the purpose of generating segregation among competition and building loyalty among customers." In 2004 and 2008, Kapferer and Keller respectively defined it as a fulfillment in customer expectations and consistent customer satisfaction. Brand management is a function of marketing that uses special techniques in order to increase the perceived value of a product (see: Brand equity). Based on the aims of the established marketing strategy, brand management enables the price of products to grow and builds loyal customers through positive associations and images or a strong awareness of the brand. Brand management is the process of identifying the core value of a particular brand and reflecting the core value among the targeted customers. In modern terms, brand could be corporate, product, service, or person. Brand management build brand credibility and credible brands only can build brand loyalty, bounce back from circumstantial crisis, and can benefit from price-sensitive customers. Brand orientation refers to "the degree to which the organization values brands and its practices are oriented towards building brand capabilities". It is a deliberate approach to working with brands, both internally and externally. The most important driving force behind this increased interest in strong brands is the accelerating pace of globalization. This has resulted in an ever-tougher competitive situation on many markets. A product's superiority is in itself no longer sufficient to guarantee its success. The fast pace of technological development and the increased speed with which imitations turn up on the market have dramatically shortened product lifecycles. The consequence is that product-related competitive advantages soon risk being transformed into competitive prerequisites. For this reason, increasing numbers of companies are looking for other, more enduring, competitive tools – such as brands. Brand management aims to create an emotional connection between products, companies and their customers and constituents. Brand managers may try to control the brand image. Brand managers create strategies to convert a suspect to prospect, prospect to buyer, buyer to customer, and customer to brand advocates. Even though social media has changed the tactics of marketing brands, its primary goals remain the same; to attract and retain customers. However, companies have now experienced a new challenge with the introduction of social media. This change is finding the right balance between empowering customers to spread the word about the brand through viral platforms, while still controlling the company's own core strategic marketing goals. Word-of-mouth marketing via social media, falls under the category of viral marketing, which broadly describes any strategy that encourages individuals to propagate a message, thus, creating the potential for exponential growth in the message's exposure and influence. Basic forms of this are seen when a customer makes a statement about a product or company or endorses a brand. This marketing technique allows users to spread the word on the brand which creates exposure for the company. Because of this, brands have become interested in exploring or using social media for commercial benefit.
Views: 14778 The Audiopedia
What is CREDENTIAL EVALUATION? What does CREDENTIAL EVALUATION mean?
 
02:52
What is CREDENTIAL EVALUATION? What does CREDENTIAL EVALUATION mean? CREDENTIAL EVALUATION meaning - CREDENTIAL EVALUATION definition - CREDENTIAL EVALUATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Credential evaluation is the way in which academic and professional degrees earned in one country are compared to those earned in another. Universities, colleges and employers around the world use credential evaluations to understand foreign education and to judge applicants for admission or employment. Immigrants can use credential evaluations to gain recognition for study completed outside the country they are immigrating to and in doing so join the workforce as skilled immigrants. International students use credential evaluations to present their previous coursework and grades to universities anywhere for admission. Credential Evaluation in the United States Universities and colleges in the United States saw a marked increase in the number of international students applying for admission after World War II when many European countries were recovering from the war.The need for an accurate and fair understanding of students’ educational past emerged and became even more important as the number of international students studying in the United States jumped from 25,000 in the years after the war, according to NAFSA. There were over 866,000 international students studying in the United States in 2013 to 2014. As universities face declining public financial support and the pressure to keep tuition affordable, academic institutions have relied on international students to offset the rising cost of higher education. The majority of international students in the United States are from China, India and South Korea. However, there has been a large and steady growth in the number of international students from Brazil, Vietnam, Indonesia and Nigeria. There is no federal (national) government agency that oversees credential evaluations in the United States. There are professional associations such as Association of International Credential Evaluators, Inc. (AICE) and National Association of Credential Evaluation Services (NACES) that create and maintain ethical standards in the field though they are not governing agencies and membership by credential evaluators is voluntary. However, credential evaluators must meet certain criteria to belong to AICE and NACES. Universities and colleges also evaluate credentials themselves.
Views: 1059 The Audiopedia

Metformin 1000 mg twice a day
Amoxibron 250 pediatrico
Nuvaring tem generico de crestor
5 htp and adderall interactions with st
60 mg benicar